The Red Castle Museum, also known as Assaraya Alhamra Museum or the Archaeological Museum of Tripoli, is a national museum in Libya. It is located in the historic building known as the Red Castle or Red Saraya.
Designed in conjunction with UNESCO, the museum covers 5,000 years from prehistory to the independence revolution (1953) era. It is located in Tripoli's Assaria al-Hamra or Red Castle fortress, on the promontory above and adjacent to the old-town district with medina Ghadema. The museum has an entrance on historic As-Saha al-Kradrah, the Martyrs' Square.
The museum was established in 1919, when the colonial Italians in Libya converted a section of the castle to a museum to house many of the archaeological artifacts scattered across the country since prehistoric times. The square around the castle was designed in the thirties by architect Florestano Di Fausto. When the British occupied Libya during World War II, the museum occupied the entire complex of the castle and in 1948 was renamed The Libyan Museum. The museum reopened to the public in 1988, renamed the Assaraya Alhamra Museum–Red Castle Museum, with "state-of-the-art" facilities.
The museum was designed with different wings and floors for the exhibition of the distinct collections.
- Prehistory of the Libyan region
- Ancient Libyan tribes and traditions – the Maghreb Berbers: Garamentes, Tuareg, and others
- Libyan culture during the Phoenican–Punic–Greek–Roman Libya–Byzantine–Ottoman Tripolitania-era traditions
- Islamic architecture
- Italian Libya, World War II, Libyan independence and 20th-century Libyan heritage
- Natural history of the Libyan region