Rome, Italy Heart of Ancient Rome City walk by Tara Anbudaiyan

The Roman Forum was the heart of the city during the Republic (509 BC - 27 BC) and continued for hundreds of years. The wealthy and powerful Romans of the day resided above the Forum on Palatine Hill, where legend says that Romulus and Remus founded the city in 753 BC. This City Walk allows plenty of time to explore this incredible collection of ancient artifacts.

source: Triposo

 
The white marble Arch of Septimius Severus at the northwest end of the Roman Forum is a triumphal arch dedicated in AD 203 to commemorate the Parthian victories of Emperor Septimius Severus and his two sons, Caracalla and Geta, in the two campaigns against the Parthians of 194/195 and 197-199.

Arch of Septimius Severus

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source: Triposo

 
Only the foundation remains of the temple where Julius Caesar was infamously slain in 44 BC. It is said that a comet appeared after the murder and many thought it was Caesar's soul called to join the other Gods. The Temple of Caesar or Temple of Divus Iulius also known as Temple of the Deified Julius Caesar, delubrum, heroon or Temple of the Comet Star, is an ancient structure in the Roman Forum of Rome, Italy, located near the Regia and the Temple of Vesta.

Temple of Caesar

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source: Triposo

 
The legend goes that the spirits of Castor and Pollux, the founders of Rome, appeared here after a great battle had been won in 495 BC. By the second century AD, the Temple served as a meeting place for the Roman Senate. The Temple of Castor and Pollux is an ancient temple in the Roman Forum, Rome, central Italy. It was originally built in gratitude for victory at the Battle of Lake Regillus (495 BC). Castor and Pollux (Greek Polydeuces) were the Dioscuri, the "twins" of Gemini, the twin sons of Zeus (Jupiter) and Leda. Their cult came to Rome from Greece via Magna Graecia and the Greek culture of Southern Italy.

Temple of Castor and Pollux

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Only recently reopened to the public, the Santa Maria Antiqua church was built in the 5th century into the remains of the Palace of Emperor Domitian on Palatine Hill and features well-preserved frescoes. A covered ramp, large enough for a carriage, gave the Emperor direct access from the Palace to the Roman Forum below. Both the church and the 'Imperial Ramp' were rediscovered in 1900 and restored as time and funds allowed, reopening in 2015. Climb the Imperial Ramp for spectacular views of the Forum below. Santa Maria Antiqua is a Roman Catholic Marian church in Rome, Italy, built in the 5th century in the Forum Romanum, and for a long time the monumental access to the Palatine imperial palaces.

Santa Maria Antiqua & The Imperial Ramp

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source: Triposo

 
Rome's most important priestesses tended to the Temple of Vesta, the virgin goddess of hearth, home and family. This has been a site of ancient cult activity since the 7th century BC, but the current structure was reconstructed in the 1930s. Note the circular footprint, as all Temples to Vesta were round and had entrances facing east to connect the constantly burning fire in the temple center to the sun. The Temple of Vesta is an ancient edifice in Rome, Italy, located in the Roman Forum near the Regia and the House of the Vestal Virgins. The temple's most recognizable feature is its circular footprint. Since the worship of Vesta began in private homes, the architecture seems to be a reminder of its history. The extant temple used Greek architecture with Corinthian columns, marble, and a central cella. The remaining structure indicates that there were twenty Corinthian columns built on a podium fifteen meters in diameter. The roof probably had a vent at the apex to allow smoke release.

Temple of Vesta

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The priestesses tending to the Temple of Vestal lived just behind it in this three-story palace surrounding an atrium, completed around AD 113. There were six Vestals, appointed between the ages of 6 and 10 by the Emperor, serving for thirty years. The statues of the Vestals and some of the palace's foundation are all that remains. The House of the Vestal Virgins was the residence of Vestal Virgins, located behind the circular Temple of Vesta at the eastern edge of the Roman Forum, between the Regia and the Palatine Hill. The domus publicae where the Pontifex Maximus dwelled, was located near the Atrium until that role was assumed by the emperors.

House of the Vestals

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This is one of the most well-preserved structures in the Roman Forum. Built to commemorate his wife, Faustina, Emperor Antoninus Pius began building this temple in 141 AD and upon his death in 161, the temple was re-dedicated to both husband and wife. The Temple was converted to a Roman Catholic church by the 11th century, although some believe it occurred as early as the 7th century. The Temple of Antoninus and Faustina is an ancient Roman temple in Rome, adapted to the church of San Lorenzo in Miranda. It stands in the Forum Romanum, on the Via Sacra, opposite the Regia.

Temple of Antoninus and Faustina

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source: Triposo

 
Wonder at the original bronze doors of this Temple dating to AD 309, which was dedicated to the young son of Emperor Maxentius upon his death. In the 6th century, it was converted into a vestibule of a church, the Basilica of Santi Cosma e Damiano. The basilica of Santi Cosma e Damiano is a church in Italy, located in the Roman Forum. It is one of the ancient churches called tituli, of which cardinals are patrons as cardinal-deacons: the current Cardinal Deacon of the Titulus Ss. Cosmae et Damiani is Beniamino Stella, created Cardinal on 22 February 2014. The basilica, devoted to the two Greek brothers, doctors, martyrs and saints Cosmas and Damian, is located in the Forum of Vespasian, also known as the Forum of Peace.

Santi Cosma e Damiano

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source: Triposo

 
Home to relics dating to the 5th century BC, this ornate church is worth a visit. Originally built in the 10th century, the basilica was re-dedicated to Saint Frances in the 17th century. Since 1925, Saint Frances has guarded over the city's cars and drivers, and on March 9th every year, automobiles will gather for blessings. Santa Francesca Romana, previously known as Santa Maria Nova, is a church in Rome, Italy, situated next to the Roman Forum in the rione Campitelli.

Santa Francesca Romana

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source: Triposo

 
The Arch of Titus is a 1st-century A.D. honorific arch, located on the Via Sacra, Rome, just to the south-east of the Roman Forum. It was constructed in c. A.D. 82 by the Emperor Domitian shortly after the death of his older brother Titus to commemorate Titus' victories, including the Siege of Jerusalem (70 AD). The arch has provided the general model for many triumphal arches erected since the 16th century—perhaps most famously it is the inspiration for the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, France.

Arch of Titus

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Wander the terraces and aviaries that remain, and stop to rest or enjoy a picnic after exploring the Roman Forum below. The Farnese Gardens are a garden in Rome, central Italy, created in 1550 on the northern portion of Palatine Hill, by Cardinal Alessandro Farnese. They were the first private botanical gardens in Europe; the first botanical gardens of any kind in Europe were started by Italian universities in the mid-16th century, only a short time before.

Farnese Gardens

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End your tour of ancient rome with the palace remains at the top of Palatine Hill, which is included in your ticket to the Roman Forum. Affluent Romans lived on this hill during the height of the Republic (509-44 BC), followed by palaces of Emperors Augustus, Tiberius and Domitian during the Empire (27 BC to 476 AD), of which ruins remain. The Palatine Hill is the centermost of the Seven Hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city. It stands 40 metres above the Forum Romanum, looking down upon it on one side, and upon the Circus Maximus on the other.

Palatine Hill

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