Outside of the more upscale tourist services and big cities like Lima, English is uncommon and the people, trying to be friendly, can give wrong or inexact advice, a translator... Intro Tourism in Peru makes up the nation's third largest industry, behind fishing and mining. Tourism is directed towards archeological monuments, ecotourism in the Peruvian Amazon, cultural tourism in colonial cities, gastronomic tourism, adventure tourism, and beach tourism. According to a Peruvian government study, the satisfaction rate for tourists after visiting Peru is 94%. Tourism is the most rapidly growing industry in Peru, growing annually at a rate of 25% over the past five years. Tourism is growing in Peru faster than any other country in South America. The most popular countries of origin for tourists are the United States, Chile, Argentina, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Brazil, Spain, Canada, and Italy. Iperú is the Peruvian national tourist office. Transportation Air Peru does not have one clear national airline, but rather a number of different airlines offering service to Peru from North America, South America, Europe, and Asia. Some of the most popular airlines are LAN Perú TACA Peru (international), and Star Peru (domestic). The country's airports are also served by many international airlines from other nations. The Jorge Chavez International Airport in Lima is the nation's leading international airport and received 7,507,811 passengers in 2007. Domestic air travel serves as a major method for tourists to traverse the country with multiple airlines offering service between many of Peru's cities. Highways Additionally, Peru has land borders with five countries and has highway connections with all but Colombia. International bus routes are operated on each of these highways providing service from Peruvian cities to other South American cities. Domestically, the highway system is extensive and covers nearly the entire country excluding the department of Loreto which can only be accessed by boat or airplane. There are frequent buses traveling throughout the country. But, bus travel is dangerous as many of these highways are built on cliffs, and accidents leading to death are frequently reported by the media. Occasionally buses are held up by highwaymen in remote areas. The buses range in size and comfort but they usually have cushioned reclining seats and a form of onboard entertainment, such as a movie or music. Many offer bus-camas, or sleeper buses, with seats that recline to become beds. Rail Peru is starting to build a metro in Lima, but other regions do not have this system. Tourists must travel by bus or taxi within the city. Outside of Lima, there are only two major railway systems in operation, one in the central part of the country and the other in the south. The central railway starts at sea level in Lima and traverses the Andes, crossing through the Junin and Huancavelica departments. The southern railway is the one most commonly used by tourists, as a segment of its route goes from the city of Cusco to the citadel of Machu Picchu, a major tourist attraction. This route offers seating options ranging from economy class to first class. The railway originates in the city of Mollendo in the Arequipa Department and goes through the Puno and Cusco departments, passing through the cities of Arequipa, Puno, Juliaca, the citadel of Machu Picchu, and ends at Cusco. The railway is operated by PeruRail, the largest railway manager in Peru. River Another mode of transportation in the Amazonian area is river transport. River transportation companies operate routes between the cities of the Peruvian Amazon. The main hubs of this network are the cities of Iquitos, Puerto Maldonado, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas. Because of the lack of roads in this region, river transport, along with air travel, are the most efficient and important methods of transport. Data Tourism is the third largest industry in Peru. It employs 10.8% of the labor force in Peru the majority of them belonging to the hotel and transportation industries. The industry makes up 7% of the Peruvian gross domestic product and is the fastest growing industry in the country. It is regulated by the Commission for the Promotion of Peru (PromPeru) belonging to the Ministry of Foreign Commerce and Tourism. Themes Cultural tourism Cultural tourism forms the largest sector of the tourism industry in Peru. Pre-Columbian civilizations – most notably the Incan Empire, Chavín, Moche, and Nasca – left a large archeological and cultural impact on the nation. The ruins of Machu Picchu are the most internationally recognized of all the ruins of Peru and therefore receive the most tourists. The other popular ruins are those of Chan Chan, Sipan, Kuelap, Nazca lines, Ollantaytambo, Caral, Sacsayhuamán, and Sillustani. Tourists also visit the Spanish colonial architecture in many cities in Peru. Some of the most outstanding examples of Spanish colonial architecture are in the cities of Lima, Arequipa, and Cusco. These areas, many built over 500 years ago, demonstrate the superb architectural ingenuity of the colonists during the Viceroyalty of Peru. The city of Lima has many acclaimed museums holding works of art reflecting the diverse history of the country. These museums include the National Museum, National Museum of Anthropology, Archeology and History; Rafael Larco Herrera Archeological Museum, National Museum of Peruvian Culture, and Museum of Italian Art, among many others. There are also many museums outside Lima, including the Regional Museum of the National University of San Martin in Tarapoto, San Martin. Voluntourism Peru is one of the most popular destinations for international volunteers. With almost 35% of the population living in poverty, there is plenty of development work to be done. Popular fields to volunteer in include: health care and medicine, education, youth empowerment, gender equality, wildlife and environmental conservation. Ecotourism 60% of the land of Peru is in the Amazon Basin. Peru has a higher percentage of land area protected in national parks and preserves than any other country in South America. The Peruvian Amazon is one of the most pristine, virgin, and untouched rainforests on the earth, making it a destination for tourists interested in nature and ecology. Increased tourist infrastructure has been developed. The Peruvian Amazon is divided into two areas: the High Jungle and the Lower Jungle. The High Jungle is more easily accessible, while the Lower Jungle is more pristine and untouched. In recent times, however, the government has increased accessibility to the Lower Jungle. Both areas contain an unrivaled diversity of animal and plant life. Large national preserves of interest to tourists include the Manú National Park, Rio Abiseo National Park, and the Tambopata-Candamo Protected Area. Tourist agencies in these areas promote eco-friendly tourism to preserve the fragile ecosystems of the rainforest. Adventure tourism Because of Peru's geographical diversity, it is possible to go surfing, sandboarding, 4x4, dune buggy, alpinism, rafting, rappelling, downhill, rally, trekking, skiing, and mountain climbing. Surfing is extremely popular in Peru, and the country has been host to numerous national and international competitions in the sport. The country is home to the world-famous surfer Sofía Mulánovich. Peru is divided into three geographical regions: the coast, the sierra, and the jungle. Each one has numerous activities suited to its particular climate and environment. The sport of skiing is developing in the city of Huaraz, and new resorts are created to suit the rising tourist demand. The sand dunes of Ica are popular for dune buggies. River rafting has become very popular among national and international tourists in recent years, and availability in Lima and Cusco is high. Rapids range in difficulty and there are rafting options from novices to experts. Trekking has become the most popular type of adventure sport among tourists in Peru. This is because of the treks offered from Cusco to Machu Picchu, as well as trails in other parts of the country such as Ancash. Mountain climbing is a popular sport among tourists in the sierra region. For more information on adventure tourism see the Ancash section of this article below. Gastronomic tourism Peruvian cuisine stems mainly from the combination of Spanish cuisine with traditional native Peruvian ingredients, with later influences from the cuisines of China, Italy, West Africa and Japan, due to the arrival of immigrants from those locations. Each of these cuisines has had to be heavily adapted because of a lack or scarcity of many ingredients. For example, it is still impossible to find such commonplace items as lemons, turnips, kale and chestnuts in Peru. It is next to impossible to find authentic foreign cuisine to this day because of a lack of ingredients. For example, one can not find authentic Chinese dishes such as Mapo dofu. Instead one finds a mixture of Chinese cooking that has been adapted to the ingredients available in Peru known as Chifa. The three traditional staples of Peruvian cuisine are corn, potatoes and beans. These ingredients have been combined with a number of staples brought by the Spanish, such as rice, wheat and meat . Many traditional foods, such as quinoa, kiwicha, chili peppers and several roots and tubers which had previously been tossed aside for European products, have seen a resurgence in popularity in recent decades with a revival of interest in native Peruvian food crops. Beach tourism Peru boasts a 2,414-kilometer coastline littered with many beaches attractive to any type of traveler. Beachgoing in Peru is extremely popular among domestic and international travelers alike. Beach resorts and towns are abundant along the coast and many are in popular areas which attract visitors. Two of the most popular beach areas are Máncora and Punta Sal in the Piura and Tumbes departments respectively, and Asia in the Lima Department. The northern beaches of Máncora and Punta Sal have a pleasant beach climate year round whereas Asia is primarily a summertime beach. Because Asia is located near the city of Lima, many beachgoers own houses in that area. In contrast, Máncora is many hours from major cities so visitors usually stay in hotels or resorts. Beachgoing in Peru is affected by fads: Beach homeowners moved from beach to beach resulting from the oversaturation of one beach. In previous years, the beach of Ancon was the most popular of Lima; it became oversaturated and beachgoers moved south of the city to the beaches of Punta Hermosa, San Bartolo, Santa Maria and Pucusana. In the last decade, these beaches have become oversaturated as well and beachgoers have moved further south to the development of Asia, which has now become extremely popular and is the primary beach destination for Limeans. Máncora, 17 hours north of Lima by bus and 1.5 hours by plane from Talara, is older than Asia but still a relatively new development. In recent years it has experienced a tourist boom and beachgoers flock there. Its beaches have white sand and the town has many nightclubs and bars frequented by thousands of tourists. The popularity of this beach has become so great that a movie has been made about the beach: Mancora. Punta Sal is another beach a half hour north of Mancora, less popular among young people, and the destination for older people seeking relaxation. Nonetheless it remains a large tourist attraction and is characterized by its white sand beaches and turquoise color waters. Peruvian beaches are popular places for surfing and their waves are world renowned. Luxury travel Peru has also been experiencing a continuous growth in luxury travel, particularly from around 2005 onwards. This niche of tourists arrive seeking high-end hotels and premium experiences in unique destinations, and travel mainly from the U.S. and Europe, but increasingly also from Asian countries, particularly China. The main destinations of interest are Cusco, Urubamba, and Machu Picchu. Recently this segment has been expanding to other area such as the Puno region and Lake Titicaca, as well as Iquitos and the Colca Canyon in Arequipa, as the government, local authorities and local and international travel firms have made large investments in hotels, infrastructure and other tourism development. The Peruvian government has made major efforts at securing international investment in the country's high-end tourism industry, particularly in emerging markets. There are investors from major international hotel chains willing to invest millions of dollars in 5 star hotels and resorts in the Mancora and Punta Sal area under capital investment or joint venture schemes. The investors are comprised by more than 115 investment funds of USA and Europe. Destinations by department The two most visited areas by tourists in Peru are the cities of Lima and its historic centre, and Cusco whose principal attractions are the Sacred Valley of the Incas, Machu Picchu, and incan and colonial architecture. Amazonas The region of Amazonas is a land of microclimates each containing an extensive amount of biodiversity. Additionally, the department was home to pre-Columbian civilizations that have left stunning remnants of their once great culture. The capital of the department, Chachapoyas, adds to the diversity of ecology and culture as it is home to picturesque colonial architecture. The streets of this city are narrow. It contains a main square as common throughout Peruvian cities and maintains colonial mansions and balconies which add to the flavor of the area's mixed culture. Arguably the most impressive destination of the department is the ancient fortress of Kuélap. Often referred to as the Machu Picchu of the north, Kuleap was built by the Chachapoyas civilization, an ancient tribe of warriors who resisted the Incas imperial expansion. The Gocta Waterfall is in this department and is the third highest waterfall in the world. As it was only recently discovered in 2005, the Peruvian government is making plans to develop it for tourism. Ancash The region of Ancash is home to the Cordillera Blanca, the highest mountain range in Peru. The department is the epicenter of Peru's adventure tourism sector and attracts visitors seeking to participate in all sorts of activities. The department is a paradise for trekkers and hikers as there is a vast network of trails. The benefit of trekking in Ancash is that only a select few trails have been commercialized. The scenery along these pre-Columbian trails is spectacular and there are more than 12,000 lakes. Picturesque villages are scattered throughout the department and are very hospitable. The most popular treks in the department are that of the Llama trek, the Cordillera Blanca, and the Cordillera Huayhuash. The capital city, Huaraz, has a small but reasonably developed skiing industry. Mountain biking is the fastest growing sport in the region. Mountain bikes are available to the traveler at each level of expertise. White water rafting is a significant activity in the department. Rapids range in difficulty from novice to expert. Mountain climbing is a very large industry in the area. The department has a high concentration of peaks and is not very crowded. The weather is mild year-round and is easily accessible from Huaraz. Twelve of Peru's twenty tallest mountains are located in the department ranging from 5,000 to 6,700 meters . To the cultural tourist Ancash also has much to offer. The Callejon de Huaylas is home to Chavin de Huantar, an ancient archeological complex built over 3,200 years ago. The area is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Picturesque cities litter the Callejon such as that of Recuay, Carhuaz, Yungay, Chacas and Caraz. These cities retain a unique blend of European and Andean architecture. One of the principal attractions of the department is the Huascaran National Park which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The park is home to Peru's highest mountain, Mt. Huascarán. Apurímac Apurímac is in the southern Andes of Peru and is home to many villages and towns characterized by uncommercialized natural beauty. In addition to natural beauty, the cities of Abancay and Andahuaylas are home to Spanish colonial architecture each with a main square and narrow cobblestone streets. The main tourist activities in this area are hiking and white water rafting. Since the regions are close to Cusco, many tourists make offshoot trips from Cusco to Apurímac. Arequipa The Arequipa region is one of the most geographically, culturally, and socially varied of Peru. Main attractions of the department are the city of Arequipa, the Colca Canyon, adventure tourism, and wildlife observation. The city of Arequipa, the second largest in the nation, is known as the "white city." The name comes from the colour of the city's buildings which are made of sillar that comes from the volcanoes in the area. The city is overshadowed by the El Misti volcano which adds to the city's charm. It is the most developed city in Peru after Lima. The Historic centre of Arequipa was made a UNESCO World Heritage Site by the United Nations for its abundance of Spanish baroque colonial churches and mansions, and the Santa Catalina Monastery, a city within a city with cobblestone roads, plazas, and patios. Arequipan cuisine has remained more heavily influenced by Spanish colonial cuisine than that in Lima and it has remained relatively free from the later influence of immigrants that migrated to Lima, such as the Chinese and Japanese. The Colca Canyon is 100 miles northwest of Arequipa and is double the depth of the Grand Canyon in the United States. The Cotahuasi Canyon, located nearer to the city but considered less picturesque, is the deepest in the Western Hemisphere. Ayacucho The Ayacucho department is in the southern Andes and contains a number of tourist sites attracting many visitors. The capital city, also known as Ayacucho, is said to have a church on every corner. These churches were built by the Spanish in the colonial period and contain much artwork. The department is home to various Wari archeological sites. The cities and towns of Ayacucho specialize in creating and selling handicrafts. Many of the handicrafts are created in Huamanga stone which is native to the department. The Vilcashuaman archeological site is an important Incan site. Cajamarca The region of Cajamarca is a melting pot of colonial architecture, historical significance, and a beautiful countryside. The city played an important part in South American history as it was an Incan stronghold that was taken by the Spanish who eventually conquered the continent and formed the Viceroyalty of Peru. From the conquest of the area, the city of Cajamarca ceased to be Incan and the Spanish imposed their magnificent colonial architecture upon the city. The city retains this architecture and it is a focal point to tourism in the region. Tourist destinations include Inca Baths, medicinal hot springs that were built by the Incas; the Ventanillas de Otuzco, an Incan cemetery carved into volcanic rock; Cumbemayo, a pre-Incan hydraulic engineering complex still working today; a picturesque hacienda called La Colpa; Kuntur Wasi, a commercial centre dating to 1100 B.C. containing a museum thought to have the oldest gold artifacts known to man; and a zoo. The city of Cajamarca is home to the Ransom Room, an Incan room that the Spanish ordered to be filled with gold and silver to secure the release of the Incan ruler Atahualpa. The ransom was met but the emperor was still killed. Callao The Constitutional Province of Callao is really a city rather than a political entity. It forms part of the Lima Metropolitan Area and is the transportation hub of the country. It is the location of the Jorge Chavez International Airport, the largest in the country. Callao is Peru's largest maritime port and was founded in 1537. During the Viceroyalty of Peru, all wealth extracted from the South American Continent had to pass through this city. This wealth is evident through the remaining colonial mansions and elaborately carved balconies which characterize the city. The Real Felipe Fortress is an important tourist attraction which was built in 1747 to protect the city from pirates such as Sir Francis Drake. The fortress played a key role in the Peruvian War of Independence. Chucuito, a neighborhood of Callao, is known for its Gothic and neo-Renaissance houses as well as brightly colored homes. The district of La Punta was once home to the beach houses of Lima's aristocracy and contains stately homes dating back to the early 19th century. The La Punta district is characterized by an ocean boardwalk, pebble beaches, and elegant mansions. The islands of El Camotal, San Lorenzo, El Frontón, Cavinzas and Palomino are just off the coast and home to sea birds and sea lions. The island of El Fronton once housed some of Peru's most dangerous criminals. Cusco The Cusco Region is the most visited department in Peru. It is home to the city of Cusco, the Sacred Valley of the Incas, and the citadel of Machu Picchu, one of the New 7 Wonders of the World. The city of Cusco was the capital of the Incan Empire and was placed on the list of World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1983. Incan monuments are throughout the city and are some of the most impressive in Peru. Additionally, after conquest by the Spanish, they attempted to bring their architectural and cultural influence to the city and rid of the Incan presence. Their goal was only partially successful as their architecture and culture did remain. With the occurrence of earthquakes and other natural event over the centuries, the more well-built Incan buildings also remained. This is what has given Cusco its unique blend of culture. It is the most touristically developed area in Peru; tourism is by far the largest industry and infrastructure is extremely well developed. The city has thousands of hotel rooms ranging from hostels to five-star hotels. Gastronomy is representative of all of Peru as well as local cuisine. International cuisine is also largely present in the city's many restaurants. The city has a wide variety of languages due to the large tourist presence with many common languages spoken other than Spanish being English, German, and French. In addition to these languages, Quechua is spoken by many residents of the city along with Spanish. Most tourism agencies have offices in this city. Major attractions include the historic downtown with colonial architecture and the main plaza, Sacsayhuamán, the palace of Inca Roca, neighborhood of San Blas, and the archeological sites of Qenko, Pukapukara, and Tambomachay. The Sacred Valley has a multitude of picturesque towns such as Písac, Maras, and Chinchero. Additionally, a variety of archeological sites such as Ollantaytambo are located in the valley. Arguably the most popular tourist attraction in Peru is located a few hours from Cusco by train: the citadel of Machu Picchu. These ruins are beyond description and are the most beautiful and important legacy of the Incan people. The site is one of the New 7 Wonders of the World and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Machu Picchu can be accessed by the PeruRail train or a hike on the Inca Trail. Other routes like the Salkantay trek, Inca Jungle Trek or even the Cacao & Coffee route have been recently opened to access MachuPicchu. Huancavelica The Huancavelica department is the least developed and poorest department of Peru. Despite this, the department has a rich history and maintains evidence of it through beautiful colonial architecture and archeological monuments. This department was inhabited by the Wari and the Chancas before being conquered and incorporated into the Incan Empire. Following this, with the Spanish conquest of Peru, Huancavelica became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru. The Spanish established themselves in this area because of silver and mercury mines found here. They left magnificent colonial mansions and churches in the capital city, also known as Huancavelica. Huánuco The Huánuco region is divided into two distinct geographical regions, the sierra and the jungle. The capital city, also known as Huanuco is in the Andean sierra. It was founded in 1539 by the Spanish and ever since it has been a site of colonial architecture typical of the Peruvian Andes. On the opposite side of the department, in the jungle area, is Tingo Maria, the department's second largest city. It is home to the Tingo Maria National Park which contains a variety of flora such as orchids, cat’s claw, and dragon’s blood, as well as animals such as little spotted cats, jaguars, reptiles, sachavacas, oilbirds, Andean Cock-of-the-rock, and the howler monkey. A tourist destination in this area is the Owl's Cave home to nocturnal birds and the Turkey's Cave home to abundant vegetation. Ica The Ica region was the location of various ancient civilizations that literally left their mark. One of the most popular attractions of this area are the Nazca lines, an enigma that modern archeologists have not been able to figure out. These lines stretch for miles in the desert and form pictures of animals and figures only viewable from the air. The Paracas National Reservation is another point on this circuit which attracts many ecological and cultural tourists alike as it is a refuge to sea lions, otters, penguins, dolphins, more than 200 species of birds from flamingos, waders, and guano birds. Additionally in the preserve, there are magnificent beaches, like La Mina, La Catedral and Mendieta beaches, and beautiful rock formations. Elsewhere in the department there are a variety of vineyards which produce pisco and wines. Wine tasting in this area is among the best in Peru. Another popular destination is the oasis of Huacachina which is visited by tourists on behalf of its beauty and for the fact that it was the birthplace of Afro-Peruvian music. Junín The region of Junín, just as Huánuco, is divided by the sierra and the jungle. The western side is made up of steep mountain ranges, and the east is made up of jungle vegetation. The capital city, Huancayo, is one of the largest of Peru and is in the Mantaro River valley. The area in western Junín was one of the first settled by the Spanish and preserves much of the colonial architecture from that time. Tourist attractions include the Convent of Santa Rosa of Ocopa which contains a library with over 25,000 volumes. The city of Jauja was the first capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru and still contains many of the remnants of its important colonial past. The city of Tarma, known as the city of flowers, has a spectacular climate and a picturesque countryside. Other important attractions are the Junin National Reservation and the Chacamarca Historic Sanctuary. La Libertad Located in the region of La Libertad, the city of Trujillo is known in Peru as the city of eternal spring due to its nice climate around all year, in September of every year it's realized in the city the spring festival visited by people all over the world, the festival has as principal attraction a queens parade and a final big party. In its metropolitan area were located the capital cities of the Chimu and Mochica cultures (Chan Chan and Huacas del sol with Huaca de La Luna respectively). Tourists are attracted to its pre-Incan monuments such as the Huaca of the Sun and the Moon temple, El Brujo, and most notably the ancient Chimu city of Chan Chan. To the west of Trujillo is the beach resort of Huanchaco which is famous for the caballitos de totora – reed boats used by local fisherman since ancient times. Trujillan colonial architecture is some of the finest in Peru. The historic centre contains magnificent examples of colonial architecture and ambiance including various churches, the main cathedral, 100-year-old colonial houses, in the center of the city is located the main plaza or Plaza de Armas with the historical Freedom Monument. In January of every year it's made in the city the Marinera Festival what is a festival of one of the most representative dance in Peú called Marinera dance, this festival includes contest of peruvian paso horse. Currently Trujillo city is the core of the second most populous metropolitan area in Perú. Also in La Libertad Region are located Chicama and Pacasmayo beach, visited by surfers all over the world. In andean zones of the region are located Marcahuamachuco, wiracochapampa and near Sausacocha Lake. Recently it's been presented by Peru government a new museum located in the house where was born and was home of the poet cesar Vallejo, called by Thomas Merton as the greatest poet since Dante. It´s in his hometown Santiago de Chuco. Marcahuamachuco Called the northern Machu Picchu. Peruvian ChalanTrujillo city is considered Cradle of Peruvian paso horse. Huaca del SolCapital of Moche Culture. Huanchaco beachCaballitos de totora. Marinera dancersTrujillo Marinera Festival. Festivals San Jose Festival Señor de Huamán Trujillo Marinera Festival Trujillo Spring Festival Lambayeque The department of Lambayeque is one of the most touristic in the nation. It was home to the ancient civilization of the Moche who created some of the most ingenious monuments and works of art known to ancient Peru. In 1987, royal tombs of ancient Moche rulers were excavated. The artifacts found in the tomb were transferred to the Royal Tomb of Sipan Museum in the city of Lambayeque. Also there are the Brunning Museum and the Sicán Museum in Ferreñafe. These museums display the magnificent ancient artwork produced by the ancient Moche. The pyramids of Túcume are also in this area. In 2007, more than 306,000 tourists visited the museums of Lambayeque.http://www.perualdesnudo.com/turismo_ene08_306mil-turistas-museos-lambayeque.htm There are more than 20 adobe pyramids all of which are 40 meters (131 feet) in height and are in an abundance of vegetation and wildlife. Also in the area is the Chaparrí Ecological Reserve which has abundant biodiversity. The department of Lambayeque boasts some of the best cuisine in Peru. The most popular dish in this area is duck with rice. The city of Chiclayo, the capital of the department, is the second largest in the Peruvian north and has a vibrant nightlife. Lima The department of Lima is the most populous of Peru since the city of Lima is there. The city of Lima is the transportation, cultural, economic, social, political, and touristic hub of the nation. Because Peru is a highly centralized nation, much its organization and commerce are centered on this city. Lima was founded in 1535 by the conquistador Francisco Pizarro. What he founded is now known as the Historic Centre of Lima which contains much of Lima's colonial architecture which is known to be arguably the best in South America. During the colonial era, Lima was the centre of Spanish rule in South America and administration of the continent passed through this city. Because of this, a large colonial presence was built up until independence. After independence, cultures from all over the world began to melt together until creating what Lima is today. An example of this union of cultures is the city's gastronomy. Lima's cuisine is a combination representing all the groups of people who are part of the city. European, Asian, and Andean cuisine was mixed together to create what is now known as Limean cuisine. The food sector is an extremely important part of Lima's tourist economy as many of South America's best restaurants and chefs are there. Not only is the mixing of cuisines evident in Lima but the mixing of cultures is as well. Nothing exemplifies this more than the multiple museums found throughout Lima. Among these, the largest and most recognized are the National Museum, National Museum of Anthropology, Archeology and History, Rafael Larco Herrera Archeological Museum, National Museum of Peruvian Culture, and the Museum of Italian Art. Besides the traditional Museums, lately people has been talking a lot about MATE Asociación Mario Testino. With the largest collection of Mario Testino’s photographs, the Asociación Mario Testino is the only cultural institution in the world dedicated to the permanent exhibition of the work of this prominent Peruvian artist. A non-profit organization of international outreach as well as a new referent of Lima’s artistic landscape, MATE shares its vast collection through exhibitions, programs and publications. MATE’s building is located on Pedro de Osma Avenue a few blocks away from “La Plaza Principal de Barranco” and “El Puente de los Suspiros” in the district of Barranco, renowned for its great cultural tradition and architectural beauty. This nineteenth century Republican townhouse underwent a ten-month renovation and refurbishment – a project designed by architect de Augusto de Cossío- to establish itself as a new cultural reference within the district and city landscape. MATE, Asociación Mario Testino is a non-profit cultural organization focused on the work of the photographer Mario Testino. After 35 years living abroad, it was the personal desire of the artist to bring the largest collection of his work to Lima, his hometown, in contribution to the cultural heritage of Peru. The district of Miraflores is one that is frequently appealing to tourists because of the multitude of restaurants, hotels, parks, events, and attractions in the area. The Barranco District along with the Miraflores District has a vibrant nightlife with various nightclubs and pubs. Peñas a special type of venue are popular in Barranco among tourists. The Park of the Reserve and the Park of the Exposition are in the city and are one of Lima's main greenspaces. Lomas de Lanchay National Reserve is 105 kilometers north of Lima and is home to a variety of wildlife and vegetation. Caral, located in the middle of the desert, is the oldest city in the Western Hemisphere as it was built 5,000 years ago. Lunahuana, to the south of Lima, is a centre of adventure tourism with white water rafting and other activities. The beach of Asia, 100 kilometers to the south, is popular among residents as a summer getaway. Loreto Loreto is the largest yet least-populated department in Peru. Its geography is made up of dense Amazonic vegetation characterizing the type of tourism that occurs there. Iquitos, the capital, is the largest city in the Peruvian Amazon and has various tourist attractions. The city is home to European architecture brought by the rubber boom at the end of the 19th century. One of the main attractions is the Iron House, a building designed by the French architect Gustave Eiffel who designed the Eiffel Tower. The city has buildings constructed during the Art Nouveau era. The Belen district of Iquitos is in sharp contrast to the Art Nouveau architecture of other parts of the city. Belen lies on a series of canals and is often referred to as the Venice of the Peruvian jungle. Buildings are built atop rafts and other flotation devices to protect from flooding. Loreto's rivers contain many beautiful beaches that serve as day trips from Iquitos. The region of Loreto contains numerous national parks as well as private reserves. These protected areas are home to an extreme diversity of animal and plant life unmatched in the world. These areas are served by organized guides many of which can be obtained in Lima or Iquitos. Madre de Dios The Madre de Dios department contains some of the most pristine virgin rainforest on the earth. The department is criss-crossed by rivers; boats are the primary mode of transport in the region. The capital, Puerto Maldonado, is the tourist hub of the department and is a necessary stop to gain access to the department's national parks via a tourist pass. The Manu National Park is the largest protected area in the department and the most diverse. It is home to 800 species of birds and 200 species of mammals. This park set the record for the greatest amount of bird sightings in one day with 324 species of birds seen. The Tambopata-Candamo National Park is the most biodiverse area in the world with the world record for the greatest diversity among species of butterflies. Another protected area in this department is the Bahuaja-Sonene National Park. One of the reasons for tourist attraction is the lack of population in the department. The Madre de Dios department is the least populated in Peru. Because of this, the rainforest has remained almost untouched. Accessibility to the department is easy as there are daily flights to Puerto Maldonado from Lima and Cusco. There is a road connecting it to the Cusco department that is being repaved as part of the Interoceanic Highway. Moquegua The department of Moquegua in southern Peru is an area characterized by picturesque towns whose charm is that they retain their centuries-old traditions. Moquegua is a wine growing region and wine tasting is activity which can be enjoyed by tourists. The region is also a producer of the Peruvian beverage, Pisco. The quaint capital city, also known as Moquegua, is characterized by traditional houses with slanted roofs. The main square of the city contains a fountain designed and built by Gustave Eiffel, the designer of the Eiffel Tower. The main cathedral, known as the Cathedral of Santo Domingo, is home to the remains of Santa Fortunata, an early Christian martyr. Outside of the city, beaches along the coast have white sand and beautiful rock formations. The port of Ilo, a commercial centre, is west of the capital on the coast. Pasco The geography of the Pasco department is as varied as its people. The western half of the department is characterized by the Andes while the eastern half is made up of Amazonic tropical rainforest. In the 19th century, German and Austrian immigrants populated the area and brought their Central European architecture with them. Oxapampa and Pozuzo are picturesque towns and are beautiful examples of Austrian and German architecture. Further adding to their charm is their jungle setting. The descendants of the immigrants still live much how their ancestors lived, cultivating crops. Pasco is home to the Yanachaga–Chemillen National Park which contains 350 species of orchids, more than 520 species of birds, and nearly 125 species of mammals like the otter, the jaguar, the spectacled bear, and the dwarf brocket deer, all of which are endangered and nearing extinction. Piura The department of Piura is one of the most touristical in the country. The department is characterized by the Sechura Desert in the west and the Andes in the east. The capital city, also known as Piura, was the first city founded by the Spanish in Peru. Catacaos a town 12 kilometers from the city has a beautiful main plaza and a magnificent cathedral. This town has many works of pottery and its restaurants are exquisite. The Piuran coast is home to many attractions and receives tourists from all over the world. Mancora, in northern Piura, is one of the largest beach resorts in Peru. It is commonly visited by international tourists as well as domestic tourists. Not only are the beaches known for their quality and secludedness, their waves are a favorite among surfers. The town of Mancora is home to nightclubs and bars frequented by youth throughout the year. Cabo Blanco, south of Mancora, was once home to Ernest Hemingway. Cabo Blanco is known to have some of the best waves for surfing in all of Peru. Puno The department of Puno was home to the great civilization of the Tiwanaku who were once the most advanced civilization of all the Aymara people. The area was conquered by the Incas in the 15th century and by the Spanish Empire in the 16th century. The capital city, also known as Puno, serves as magnificent evidence of the combination of cultures that have left their mark. Puno lies on the shores of Lake Titicaca and is the folklore capital of Peru. The city's beauty is characterized by its location next to Lake Titicaca and its colonial architecture. The nearby city of Juliaca is a transportation hub for the department. Nearby are the Chullpas de Sillustani a monument built by the Collas which is still perfectly preserved today. Lake Titicaca is home to the Uros, who have constructed artificially made floating islands made of totora reeds. Titicaca National Reservation is refuge to many species of plants and animals, as well as breathtaking stretches of Lake Titicaca. San Martín The San Martin department is home to both high and low jungles (selva baja). One key attraction is the Rio Abiseo National Park. This park is registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site by the United Nations and is home to 36 archeological sites. In addition to this cultural aspect, the park contains 980 species of flora, particularly bromeliads, orchids, and ferns, 220 species of birds and over 50 species of mammals such as the yellow-tailed woolly monkey, the Andean deer, the spectacled bear, and the jaguar, all of which are endangered and nearing extinction. The department is dotted with lakes, hot springs with medicinal properties, and waterfalls. In addition to the Rio Abiseo National Park, San Martín is home to the Alto Mayo Protection Forest and the Cordillera Azul National Park both equal in excellence to Rio Abiseo. The region is home to the Regional Museum of the National University of San Martin, and numerous archaeological sites, including the funeral urns of Chazuta. Tacna The department of Tacna has a mild climate and a strong economy. There are many wineries in the region as well as pisco producers. The capital city, also named as Tacna, is known to be the most patriotic city of Peru. There are many monuments throughout the city honoring the heroes of the Peruvian War of Independence and the War of the Pacific. The city preserves much of its colonial architecture and retains colonial churches, mansions, and other buildings. The beaches of the department are equally popular among tourists and residents alike and become popular during the summer. Tumbes The Tumbes region is the smallest in Peru and also the northernmost. It is near the border with Ecuador. Despite its size, it is home to extremely varied terrain which attracts equally varied tourists. The coast of the department is defined by white sand beaches such as Punta Sal and Zorritos. The protected areas of Cerros de Amotape National Park, Tumbes Reserved Zone, and the Manglares de Tumbes National Sanctuary are all visited by tourists worldwide. The Cerros de Amotape National Park is home wildlife such as the Andean condor, the little spotted cat, the red deer, the peccary, the northern anteater, the spectacled bear, the grey deer, and the Guayaquil squirrel. The mangroves forests are home to birds such as black hawks, egrets, and other types of birds. The swamps contain American crocodile farms, a species nearing extinction. The department’s cuisine is exquisite and uses local resources such as black scallops and crabs. More than 50% of the land area of this department is in national parks. Ucayali The region of Ucayali is in the Peruvian Amazon. Its capital, Pucallpa, is the second largest city in the Peruvian Amazon after Iquitos. The department is home to a variety of geological monuments such as waterfalls. Tourist lodges are abundant, allowing visitors to experience the Peruvian Amazon firsthand. The large bodies of water like the jungle rivers and lakes are perfect for aquatic sports such as water skiing, rowing, and fishing. The Ucayali river passes through the department and is the most important mode of transportation. Tourist information and assistance The Peruvian national tourist office, iperú, gives free and neutral information for travelers that covers destinations, attractions, street maps, recommended routes, and recommended tourism companies in Peru. It provides assistance on procedures and helps tourists who have problems World Heritage Sites and National Parks There are eleven locations in Peru designated as World Heritage Sites by UNESCO, three of these places being national parks. These monuments receive many tourists due to their uniqueness, aesthetic attraction, and cultural significance. History The history of Peru spans several millennia, extending back through several stages of cultural development in the mountain region and the coastal desert. About 15,200 years ago, groups of people are believed to have crossed the Bering Strait from Asia and survived as nomads, hunting, gathering fruits and vegetables and fishing in the sea, rivers and lakes. Peruvian territory was home to the Norte Chico civilization, one of the six oldest in the world, and to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. It was conquered by the Spanish Empire in the 16th century, which established a Viceroyalty with jurisdiction over most of its South American domains. The nation declared independence from Spain in 1821 but consolidated only after the Battle of Ayacucho, three years later. Pre-Columbian cultures Hunting tools dating back to more than 11,000 years have been found inside the caves of Pachacamac, Telarmachay, Junin and Lauricocha.Historia del Peru, Lexus Origen de las Civilizaciones Andinas. p. 41. Some of the oldest civilizations appeared circa 6000 BC in the coastal provinces of Chilca and Paracas, and in the highland province of Callejón de Huaylas. Over the following three thousand years, inhabitants switched from nomadic lifestyles to cultivating land, as evidence from sites such as Jiskairumoko, Kotosh and Huaca Prieta demonstrates. Cultivation of plants such as corn and cotton began, as well as the domestication of animals such as the wild ancestors of the llama, the alpaca and the guinea pig. Inhabitants practiced spinning and knitting of cotton and wool, basketry and pottery. As these inhabitants became sedentary, farming allowed them to build settlements and new societies emerged along the coast and in the Andean mountains. The first known city in all of the America was Caral, located in the Supe Valley 200 km north of Lima. It is the oldest city in America and was built in approximately 2500 BC. What is left from the civilization, also called [oscoda], are about 30 pyramidical structures built up in receding terraces ending in a flat roof; some of them measured up to 20 meters in height. Caral is one of six world centers of the rise of civilization.Charles C. Mann, "Oldest Civilization in the Americas Revealed", Science, 7 January 2005, accessed 1 Nov 2010. Quote: "Almost 5,000 years ago, ancient Peruvians built monumental temples and pyramids in dry valleys near the coast, showing that urban society in the Americas is as old as the most ancient civilizations of the Old World." In the early 21st century, archeologists have discovered new evidence of ancient pre-Ceramic complex cultures. In 2005 Tom D. Dillehay and his team announced the discovery of three irrigation canals that were 5,400 years old, and a possible fourth that is 6,700 years old, all in the Zaña Valley in northern Peru, evidence of community activity to support improved agriculture at a much earlier date than previously believed.Nicholas Bakalar, "Ancient Canals in Andes Reveal Early Agriculture", National Geographic News, 5 Dec 2005, accessed 1 Nov 2010 In 2006, Robert Benfer and a research team discovered a 4,200-year-old observatory at Buena Vista, a site in the Andes several kilometers north of present-day Lima. They believe the observatory was related to the society's reliance on agriculture and understanding the seasons. The site includes the oldest three-dimensional sculptures found thus far in South America.Richard A. Lovett, "Oldest Observatory in Americas Discovered in Peru", National Geographic News, 16 May 2006, accessed 1 Nov 2010 In 2007 the archeologist Walter Alva and his team found a 4,000-year-old temple with painted murals at Ventarrón, in the northwest Lambayeque region. The temple contained ceremonial offerings gained from exchange with Peruvian jungle societies, as well as those from the Ecuadoran coast.Hearn, Kelly. "Oldest Temple, Mural in the Americas Found in Peru", National Geographic, 12 Nov 2007, accessed 1 Nov 2010 Such finds show sophisticated, monumental construction requiring large-scale organization of labor, suggesting that hierarchical, complex cultures arose in South America much earlier than scholars had thought. Many other civilizations developed and were absorbed by the most powerful ones such as Kotosh, Chavin, Paracas, Lima, Nasca, Moche, Tiwanaku, Wari, Lambayeque, Chimu and Chincha, among others. The Paracas culture emerged on the southern coast around 300 BC. They are known for their use of vicuña fibers instead of just cotton to produce fine textilesinnovations that did not reach the northern coast of Peru until centuries later. Coastal cultures such as the Moche and Nazca flourished from about 100 BC to about AD 700: the Moche produced impressive metalwork, as well as some of the finest pottery seen in the ancient world, while the Nazca are known for their textiles and the enigmatic Nazca lines. These coastal cultures eventually began to decline as a result of recurring el Niño floods and droughts. In consequence, the Huari and Tiwanaku, who dwelt inland in the Andes became the predominant cultures of the region encompassing much of modern-day Peru and Bolivia. They were succeeded by powerful city-states, such as Chancay, Sipan, and Cajamarca, and two empires: Chimor and Chachapoyas culture These cultures developed relatively advanced techniques of cultivation, gold and silver craft, pottery, metallurgy, and knitting. Around 700 BC, they appear to have developed systems of social organization that were the precursors of the Inca civilization. Not all Andean cultures were willing to offer their loyalty to the Incas as the Incas expanded their empire, and many were openly hostile. The people of the Chachapoyas culture were an example of this, but the Inca eventually conquered and integrated them into their empire. Inca Empire (1438–1532) The Incas built the largest empire and dynasty of pre-Columbian America. The Tahuantinsuyo—which is derived from Quechua for "The Four United Regions"—reached its greatest extension at the beginning of the 16th century. It dominated a territory that included : Ecuador, part of Colombia, the northern half of Chile, and the north-west part of Argentina; and from east to west, from Bolivia to the Amazonian forests and Peru. The empire originated from a tribe based in Cuzco, which became the capital. Pachacuti was the first ruler to considerably expand the boundaries of the Cuzco state. His offspring later ruled an empire by both violent and peaceful conquest. In Cuzco, the royal city was created to resemble a Cougar; the head, the main royal structure, formed what is now known as Sacsayhuaman. The Empire's administrative, political, and military center was located in Cuzco. The empire was divided into four quarters: Chinchasuyo, Antisuyo, Contisuyo, and Collasuyo. Quechua was the official language, imposed on the citizens. It was the language of a neighbouring tribe of the original tribe of the empire. Conquered populations—tribes, kingdoms, states, and cities—were allowed to practice their own religions and lifestyles, but had to recognize Inca cultural practices as superior to their own. Inti, the sun god, was to be worshipped as one of the most important gods of the empire. His representation on earth was the Inca ("Emperor"). The Tahuantinsuyo was organized in dominions with a stratified society, in which the ruler was the Inca. It was also supported by an economy based on the collective property of the land. In fact, the Inca Empire was conceived like an ambitious and audacious civilizing project, based on a mythical thought, in which the harmony of the relationships between the human being, nature, and gods was truly essential. Many interesting customs were observed, for example the extravagant feast of Inti Raymi which gave thanks to the God Sun, and the young women who were the Virgins of the Sun, sacrificial virgins devoted to the Inti. The empire, being quite large, also had an impressive transportation system of roads to all points of the empire called the Inca Trail, and chasquis, message carriers who relayed information from anywhere in the empire to Cuzco. Machu Picchu (Quechua: Old Peak; sometimes called the "Lost City of the Incas") is a well-preserved pre-Columbian Inca ruin located on a high mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley, about 70 km (44 mi) northwest of Cuzco. Elevation measurements vary depending on whether the data refers to the ruin or the extremity of the mountain; Machu Picchu tourist information reports the elevation as 2,350 m (7,711 ft). Forgotten for centuries by the outside world, although not by locals, it was brought back to international attention by Yale archaeologist Hiram Bingham III, who rediscovered it in 1911 and wrote a best-selling work about it. Peru is pursuing legal efforts to retrieve thousands of artifacts that Bingham removed from the site. Although Machu Picchu is by far the most well-known internationally, Peru boasts many other sites where the modern visitor can see extensive and well-preserved ruins, remnants of the Inca-period and even older constructions. Much of the Inca architecture and stonework found at these sites continues to confound archaeologists. For example, at Sacsayhuaman, in Cuzco, the zig-zag-shaped walls are composed of massive boulders fitted very precisely to one another's irregular, angular shapes. No mortar holds them together, but nonetheless they have remained absolutely solid through the centuries, surviving earthquakes that flattened many of Cuzco's colonial constructions. Damage to the walls visible today was mainly inflicted during battles between the Spanish and the Inca, as well as later, in the colonial era. As Cuzco grew, Sacsayhuaman's walls were partially dismantled, the site becoming a convenient source of construction materials for the city's newer inhabitants. It is still not known how these stones were shaped and smoothed, lifted on top of one another (they really are very massive), or fitted together by the Incas; we also do not know how they transported the stones to the site in the first place. The stone used is not native to the area, and most likely came from mountains many kilometers away. Conquest of Peru (1532–1572) When the Spanish landed in 1531, Peru's territory was the nucleus of the highly developed Inca civilization. Centered at Cuzco, the Inca Empire extended over a vast region, stretching from northern Ecuador to central Chile. Francisco Pizarro and his brothers were attracted by the news of a rich and fabulous kingdom. In 1532, they arrived in the country, which they called Peru. According to Raúl Porras Barrenechea, Peru is not a Quechuan nor Caribbean word, but Indo-Hispanic or hybrid. In the years between 1524 and 1526 smallpox, introduced from Panama and preceding the Spanish conquerors swept through the Inca Empire. The death of the Incan ruler Huayna Capac as well as most of his family including his heir, caused the fall of the Incan political structure and contributed to the civil war between the brothers Atahualpa and Huáscar. Taking advantage of this, Pizarro carried out a coup d'état. On November 16, 1532, while the natives were in a celebration in Cajamarca, the Spanish in a surprise move captured the Inca Atahualpa during the Battle of Cajamarca, causing a great consternation among the natives and conditioning the future course of the fight. When Huáscar was killed, the Spanish tried and convicted Atahualpa of the murder, executing him by strangulation. For a period, Pizarro maintained the ostensible authority of the Inca, recognizing Túpac Huallpa as the Sapa Inca after Atahualpa's death. But the conqueror's abuses made this façade too obvious. Spanish domination consolidated itself as successive indigenous rebellions were bloodily repressed. By March 23, 1534, Pizarro and the Spanish had refounded the Inca city of Cuzco as a new Spanish colonial settlement. Establishing a stable colonial government was delayed for some time by native revolts and bands of the Conquistadores (led by Pizarro and Diego de Almagro) fighting among themselves. A long civil war developed, from which the Pizarros emerged victorious at the Battle of Las Salinas. In 1541, Pizarro was assassinated by a faction led by Diego de Almagro II (El Mozo), and the stability of the original colonial regime was shaken up in the ensuing civil war. Despite this, the Spaniards did not neglect the colonizing process. Its most significant milestone was the foundation of Lima in January 1535, from which the political and administrative institutions were organized. The new rulers instituted an encomienda system, by which the Spanish extracted tribute from the local population, part of which was forwarded to Seville in return for converting the natives to Christianity. Title to the land itself remained with the king of Spain. As governor of Peru, Pizarro used the encomienda system to grant virtually unlimited authority over groups of native Peruvians to his soldier companions, thus forming the colonial land-tenure structure. The indigenous inhabitants of Peru were now expected to raise Old World cattle, poultry, and crops for their landlords. Resistance was punished severely, giving rise to the "Black Legend". The necessity of consolidating Spanish royal authority over these territories, led to the creation of a Real Audiencia (Royal Audience). The following year, in 1542, the Viceroyalty of Peru (in Spanish, Virreinato del Perú) was established, with authority over most of Spanish-ruled South America. (Colombia, Ecuador, Panamá and Venezuela were split off as the Viceroyalty of New Granada (in Spanish, Virreinato de Nueva Granada) in 1717; and Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay were set up as the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776). In response to the internal strife plaguing the country after Pizarro's death, Spain finally sent Blasco Núñez Vela to be Peru's first viceroy in 1544. He was later killed by Pizarro's brother, Gonzalo Pizarro, but a new viceroy, Pedro de la Gasca, eventually managed to restore order. He captured and executed Gonzalo Pizarro. A census taken by the last Quipucamayoc indicated that there were 12 million inhabitants of Inca Peru; 45 years later, under viceroy Toledo, the census figures amounted to only 1,100,000 Indians. Historian David N. Cook estimates that their population decreased from an estimated 9 million in the 1520s to around 600,000 in 1620 mainly because of infectious diseases. While the attrition was not an organized attempt at genocide, the results were similar. Scholars now believe that, among the various contributing factors, epidemic disease such as smallpox (unlike the Spanish, the Amerindians had no immunity to the disease) was the overwhelming cause of the population decline of the American natives. Inca cities were given Spanish Christian names and rebuilt as Spanish towns centered around a plaza with a church or cathedral facing an official residence. A few Inca cities like Cuzco retained native masonry for the foundations of their walls. Other Inca sites, like Huanuco Viejo, were abandoned for cities at lower altitudes more hospitable to the Spanish. Viceroyalty of Peru (1542–1824) In 1542, the Spanish Crown created the Viceroyalty of Peru, which was reorganized after the arrival of Viceroy Francisco de Toledo in 1572. He put an end to the indigenous State of Vilcabamba, executed Tupac Amaru I. He also sought economic development through commercial monopoly and mineral extraction, mainly from the silver mines of Potosí. He reused the Inca mita, a forced labor program, to mobilize native communities for mining work. This organization transformed Peru into the principal source of Spanish wealth and power in South America. The town of Lima, founded by Pizarro on January 18, 1535 as the "Ciudad de Reyes" (City of Kings), became the seat of the new viceroyalty. It grew into a powerful city, with jurisdiction over most of Spanish South America. Precious metals passed through Lima on its way to the Isthmus of Panama and from there to Seville, Spain.By the 18th century, Lima had become a distinguished and aristocratic colonial capital, seat of a university and the chief Spanish stronghold in the Americas. Nevertheless, throughout the eighteenth century, further away from Lima in the provinces, the Spanish did not have complete control. The Spanish could not govern the provinces without the help of local elite. This local elite, who governed under the title of curaca, took pride in their Incan history. Additionally, throughout the eighteenth century, indigenous people rebelled against the Spanish. Two of the most important rebellions were that of Juan Santos Atahualpa in 1742 in the Andean jungle provinces of Tarma and Jauja, and Rebellion of Tupac Amaru II in 1780 around the highlands near Cuzco. At the time, an economic crisis was developing due to creation of the Viceroyalties of New Granada and Rio de la Plata (at the expense of its territory), the duty exemptions that moved the commercial center from Lima to Caracas and Buenos Aires, and the decrease of the mining and textile production. This crisis proved favorable for the indigenous rebellion of Tupac Amaru II and determined the progressive decay of the Viceroyalty of Peru. In 1808, Napoleon invaded the Iberian Peninsula and took the king, Ferdinand XVII, hostage. Later in 1812, the Cadíz Cortes, the national legislative assembly of Spain, promulgated a liberal Constitution of Cadiz. These events inspired emancipating ideas between the Spanish Criollo people throughout the Spanish America. In Perú, The Creole rebellion of Huánuco arose in 1812 and the rebellion of Cuzco arose between 1814 and 1816. Despite these rebellions, the Criollo oligarchy in Perú remained mostly Spanish loyalist, which accounts for the fact that the Viceroyalty of Peru became the last redoubt of the Spanish dominion in South America. Republic of Peru Wars of independence (1810–1824) Peru's movement toward independence was launched by an uprising of Spanish-American landowners and their forces, led by José de San Martín of Argentina and Simón Bolívar of Venezuela. San Martín, who had displaced the royalists of Chile after the Battle of Chacabuco, and who had disembarked in Paracas in 1819, led the military campaign of 4,200 soldiers. The expedition which included warships was organized and financed by Chile which sailed from Valparaíso in August 1820. San Martin proclaimed the independence of Peru in Lima on July 28, 1821, with the words "... From this moment on, Peru is free and independent, by the general will of the people and the justice of its cause that God defends. Long live the homeland! Long live freedom! Long live our independence!". Still, the situation remained changing and emancipation was only completed by December 1824, when General Antonio José de Sucre defeated Spanish troops at the Battle of Ayacucho. Spain made futile attempts to regain its former colonies, such as at the Battle of Callao, and only in 1879 finally recognized Peruvian independence. Territorial disputes (1824–1884) After independence, Peru and its neighbors engaged in intermittent territorial disputes. A short-lived attempt to reunite Peru and Bolivia was made during the period 18361839 when the Peru-Bolivian Confederation came into existence, severe internal opposition led to its demise in the War of the Confederation. Peru embarked on a railroad building program. Henry Meiggs built a standard gauge line from Callao across the Andes to the Interior, Huancayo; striking for Cuzco he built the line but also bankrupted the country. In 1879, Peru entered the War of the Pacific which lasted until 1884. Bolivia invoked its alliance with Peru against Chile. The Peruvian Government tried to mediate the dispute by sending a diplomatic team to negotiate with the Chilean government, but the committee concluded that war was inevitable. Chile declared war on April 5, 1879. Almost five years of war ended with the loss of the department of Tarapacá and the provinces of Tacna and Arica, in the Atacama region. Originally Chile committed to a referendum for the cities of Arica and Tacna to be held years later, in order to self determine their national affiliation. However, Chile refused to apply the Treaty, and both countries could not determine the statutory framework. In an arbitrage that both countries admitted, the USA decided that the plebiscite was impossible to take, therefore, direct negotiations between the parties led to a treaty in which Arica was ceded to Chile and Tacna remained in Peru. Tacna returned to Peru on August 29, 1929. The territorial loss and the extensive looting of Peruvian cities by Chilean troops left scars on the country's relations with Chile that have not yet fully healed. Following the Ecuadorian-Peruvian War of 1941, the Rio Protocol sought to formalize the boundary between those two countries. Ongoing boundary disagreements led to a brief war in early 1981 and the Cenepa War in early 1995, but in 1998 the governments of both countries signed an historic peace treaty that clearly demarcated the international boundary between them. In late 1999, the governments of Peru and Chile likewise similarly implemented the last outstanding article of their 1929 border agreement. Aristocratic Republic (1884–1930) After the War of the Pacific, an extraordinary effort of rebuilding began. The government started to initiate a number of social and economic reforms in order to recover from the damage of the war. Political stability was achieved only in the early 1900s. In 1894, Nicolás de Piérola, after allying his party with the Civil Party of Peru to organize guerrilla fighters to occupy Lima, ousted Andrés Avelino Cáceres and once again became president of Peru in 1895. After a brief period in which the military once again controlled the country, civilian rule was permanently established with Pierola's election in 1895. His second term was successfully completed in 1899 and was marked by his reconstruction of a devastated Peru by initiating fiscal, military, religious, and civil reforms. Until the 1920s, this period was called the "Aristocratic Republic", since most of the presidents that ruled the country were from the social elite. During Augusto B. Leguía's periods in government (19081912 and 19191930, the latter known as the "Oncenio" (the "Eleventh"), the entrance of American capital became general and the bourgeoisie was favored. This policy, along with increased dependence on foreign investment, focused opposition from the most progressive sectors of Peruvian society against the landowner oligarchy. In 1929, Peru and Chile signed a final peace treaty, the Treaty of Lima by which Tacna returned to Peru and Peru yielded permanently the formerly rich provinces of Arica and Tarapacá, but kept certain rights to the port activities in Arica and restrictions on what Chile can do on those territories. The alternation between democracy and militarism (1930–1979) After the worldwide crisis of 1929, numerous brief governments followed one another. The APRA party had the opportunity to cause system reforms by means of political actions, but it was not successful. This was a nationalistic movement, populist and anti-imperialist, headed by Victor Raul Haya de la Torre in 1924. The Socialist Party of Peru, later the Peruvian Communist Party, was created four years later and it was led by Jose C. Mariategui. Repression was brutal in the early 1930s and tens of thousands of APRA followers were executed or imprisoned. This period was also characterized by a sudden population growth and an increase in urbanization. According to Alberto Flores Galindo, "By the 1940 census, the last that utilized racial categories, mestizos were grouped with whites, and the two constituted more than 53 percent of the population. Mestizos likely outnumbered Indians and were the largest population group." On February 12, 1944 Peru was one of the South American nations - following Brazil on August 22, 1942, Bolivia on April 7, 1943 and Colombia on July 26, 1943 to align with the Allied forces against the Axis. Following the Allied victory in World War II by September 2, 1945, in the mid-20th century Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre (founder of the APRA), together with José Carlos Mariátegui (leader of the Peruvian Communist Party), were two major forces in Peruvian politics. Ideologically opposed, they both managed to create the first political parties that tackled the social and economic problems of the country. Although Mariátegui died at a young age, Haya de la Torre was twice elected president, but prevented by the military from taking office. During World War II, the country rounded up around 2,000 of its Japanese immigrant population and shipped them to the United States as part of the Japanese-American internment program. President Bustamante y Rivero hoped to create a more democratic government by limiting the power of the military and the oligarchy. Elected with the cooperation of the APRA, conflict soon arose between the President and Haya de la Torre. Without the support of the APRA party, Bustamante y Rivero found his presidency severely limited. The President disbanded his Aprista cabinet and replaced it with a mostly military one. In 1948, Minister Manuel A. Odria and other right-wing elements of the Cabinet urged Bustamante y Rivero to ban the APRA, but when the President refused, Odría resigned his post. In a military coup on October 29, Gen. Manuel A. Odria became the new President. Odría's presidency was known as the Ochenio. He came down hard on APRA, momentarily pleasing the oligarchy and all others on the right, but followed a populist course that won him great favor with the poor and lower classes. A thriving economy allowed him to indulge in expensive but crowd-pleasing social policies. At the same time, however, civil rights were severely restricted and corruption was rampant throughout his régime. It was feared that his dictatorship would run indefinitely, so it came as a surprise when Odría allowed new elections. During this time, Fernando Belaúnde Terry started his political career, and led the slate submitted by the National Front of Democratic Youth. After the National Election Board refused to accept his candidacy, he led a massive protest, and the striking image of Belaúnde walking with the flag was featured by newsmagazine Caretas the following day, in an article entitled "Así Nacen Los Lideres" ("Thus Are Leaders Born"). Belaúnde's 1956 candidacy was ultimately unsuccessful, as the dictatorship-favored right-wing candidacy of Manuel Prado Ugarteche took first place. Belaúnde ran for president once again in the National Elections Of 1962, this time with his own party, Acción Popular (Popular Action). The results were very tight; he ended in second place, following Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre (APRA), by less than 14,000 votes. Since none of the candidates managed to get the Constitutionally-established minimum of one third of the vote required to win outright, selection of the President should have fallen to Congress; the long-held antagonistic relationship between the military and APRA prompted Haya de la Torre to make a deal with former dictator Odria, who had come in third, which would have resulted in Odria taking the Presidency in a coalition government. However, widespread allegations of fraud prompted the Peruvian military to depose Prado and install a military junta, led by Ricardo Perez Godoy. Godoy ran a short transitional government and held new elections in 1963, which were won by Belaúnde by a more comfortable but still narrow five percent margin. Throughout Latin America in the 1960s, communist movements inspired by the Cuban Revolution sought to win power through guerrilla warfare. The Revolutionary Left Movement (Peru), or MIR, launched an insurrection that had been crushed by 1965, but Peru's internal strife would only accelerate until its climax in the 1990s. The military has been prominent in Peruvian history. Coups have repeatedly interrupted civilian constitutional government. The most recent period of military rule (1968–1980) began when General Juan Velasco Alvarado overthrew elected President Fernando Belaúnde Terry of the Popular Action Party (AP). As part of what has been called the "first phase" of the military government's nationalist program, Velasco undertook an extensive agrarian reform program and nationalized the fish meal industry, some petroleum companies, and several banks and mining firms. General Francisco Morales Bermúdez replaced Velasco in 1975, citing Velasco's economic mismanagement and deteriorating health. Morales Bermúdez moved the revolution into a more conservative "second phase", tempering the radical measures of the first phase and beginning the task of restoring the country's economy. A Constitutional Assembly was created in 1979, which was led by Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre. Morales Bermúdez presided over the return to civilian government in accordance with a new constitution drawn up in 1979. Democratic restoration and elections (1979–present day) 1980s During the 1980s, cultivation of illicit coca was established in large areas on the eastern Andean slope. Rural insurgent movements, like the Shining Path and the Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) increased during this time and derived significant financial support from alliances with the narcotraffickers, leading to the Internal conflict in Peru. In the May 1980 elections, President Fernando Belaúnde Terry was returned to office by a strong plurality. One of his first actions as President was the return of several newspapers to their respective owners. In this way, freedom of speech once again played an important part in Peruvian politics. Gradually, he also attempted to undo some of the most radical effects of the Agrarian Reform initiated by Velasco, and reversed the independent stance that the Military Government of Velasco had with the United States. Belaúnde's second term was also marked by the unconditional support for Argentine forces during the Falklands War with the United Kingdom in 1982. Belaúnde declared that "Peru was ready to support Argentina with all the resources it needed." This included a number of fighter planes and possibly personnel from the Peruvian Air Force, as well as ships, and medical teams. Belaunde's government proposed a peace settlement between the two countries, but it was rejected by both sides, as both claimed undiluted sovereignty of the territory. In response to Chile's support of the UK, Belaúnde called for Latin American unity. The nagging economic problems left over from the previous military government persisted, worsened by an occurrence of the "El Niño" weather phenomenon in 198283, which caused widespread flooding in some parts of the country, severe droughts in others, and decimated the schools of ocean fish that are one of the country's major resources. After a promising beginning, Belaúnde's popularity eroded under the stress of inflation, economic hardship, and terrorism. In 1985, the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA) won the presidential election, bringing Alan García to office. The transfer of the presidency from Belaúnde to García on July 28, 1985, was Peru's first exchange of power from one democratically elected leader to another for the first time in 40 years. With a parliamentary majority for the first time in APRA's history, Alan García started his administration with hopes for a better future. However, economic mismanagement led to hyperinflation from 1988 to 1990. García's term in office was marked by bouts of hyperinflation, which reached 7,649% in 1990 and had a cumulative total of 2,200,200% between July 1985 and July 1990, thereby profoundly destabilizing the Peruvian economy. Owing to such chronic inflation, the Peruvian currency, the sol, was replaced by the Inti in mid-1985, which itself was replaced the nuevo sol ("new sun") in July 1991, at which time the new sol had a cumulative value of one billion old soles. During his administration, the per capita annual income of Peruvians fell to $720 (below the level of 1960) and Peru's Gross Domestic Product dropped 20%. By the end of his term, national reserves were a negative $900 million. The economic turbulence of the time acerbated social tensions in Peru and partly contributed to the rise of the violent rebel movement Shining Path. The García administration unsuccessfully sought a military solution to the growing terrorism, committing human rights violations which are still under investigation. Fujimori's presidency and the Fujishock (1990-2000) Concerned about the economy, the increasing terrorist threat from Sendero Luminoso and MRTA, and allegations of official corruption, voters chose a relatively unknown mathematician-turned-politician, Alberto Fujimori, as president in 1990. The first round of the election was won by well-known writer Mario Vargas Llosa, a conservative candidate who went on to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2010, but Fujimori defeated him in the second round. Fujimori implemented drastic measures that caused inflation to drop from 7,650% in 1990 to 139% in 1991. Faced with opposition to his reform efforts, Fujimori dissolved Congress in the auto-golpe of April 5, 1992. He then revised the constitution; called new congressional elections; and implemented substantial economic reform, including privatization of numerous state-owned companies, creation of an investment-friendly climate, and sound management of the economy. Fujimori's administration was dogged by several insurgent groups, most notably Sendero Luminoso which carried on a terrorist campaign in the countryside throughout the 1980s and 1990s. He cracked down on the insurgents and was successful in largely quelling them by the late 1990s, but the fight was marred by atrocities committed by the both Peruvian security forces and the insurgents: the Barrios Altos massacre and La Cantuta massacre by Government paramilitary groups, and the bombings of Tarata and Frecuencia Latina by Shining Path. Those examples subsequently came to be seen as symbols of the human rights violations committed during the last years of violence. With the capture of Abimael Guzmán (known as President Gonzalo) in September 1992, the Shining Path received a severe blow which practically destroyed the organization. In December 1996, a group of insurgents belonging to the MRTA took over the Japanese embassy in Lima, taking 72 people hostage. Military commandos stormed the embassy compound in May 1997, which resulted in the death of all 15 hostage takers, one hostage, and 2 commandos. It later emerged, however, that Fujimori's security chief Vladimiro Montesinos may have ordered the killing of at least eight of the rebels after they surrendered. Fujimori's constitutionally questionable decision to seek a third term and subsequent tainted victory in June 2000 brought political and economic turmoil. A bribery scandal that broke just weeks after he took office in July forced Fujimori to call new elections in which he would not run. The scandal involved Vladimiro Montesinos, who was shown in a video broadcast on TV bribing a politician to change sides. Montesinos subsequently emerged as the center a vast web of illegal activities, including embezzlement, graft, drug trafficking, as well as human rights violations committed during the war against Sendero Luminoso. Toledo, García, Humala's presidencies (2001-today) In November 2000, Fujimori resigned from office and went to Japan in self-imposed exile, avoiding prosecution for human rights violations and corruption charges by the new Peruvian authorities. His main intelligence chief, Vladimiro Montesinos, fled Peru shortly afterwards. Authorities in Venezuela arrested him in Caracas in June 2001 and turned him over to Peruvian authorities; he is now imprisoned and charged with acts of corruption and human rights violations committed during Fujimori's administration. A caretaker government presided over by Valentín Paniagua took on the responsibility of conducting new presidential and congressional elections. The elections were held in April 2001; observers considered them to be free and fair. Alejandro Toledo defeated former President Alan García. The newly elected government took office on July 28, 2001. The Toledo Administration managed to restore some degree of democracy to Peru following the authoritarianism and corruption that plagued both the Fujimori and García governments. Innocents wrongfully tried by military courts during the war against terrorism (1980–2000) were allowed to receive new trials in civilian courts. On August 28, 2003, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (CVR), which had been charged with studying the roots of the violence of the 19802000 period, presented its formal report to the President. President Toledo was forced to make a number of cabinet changes, mostly in response to personal scandals. Toledo's governing coalition had a minority of seats in Congress and had to negotiate on an ad hoc basis with other parties to form majorities on legislative proposals. Toledo's popularity in the polls suffered throughout the last years of his regime, due in part to family scandals and in part to dissatisfaction amongst workers with their share of benefits from Peru's macroeconomic success. After strikes by teachers and agricultural producers led to nationwide road blockages in May 2003, Toledo declared a state of emergency that suspended some civil liberties and gave the military power to enforce order in 12 regions. The state of emergency was later reduced to only the few areas where the Shining Path was operating. On July 28, 2006 former president Alan García became the current President of Peru. He won the 2006 elections after winning in a runoff against Ollanta Humala. In May 2008, President García was a signatory to the The UNASUR Constitutive Treaty of the Union of South American Nations. Peru has ratified the treaty. On June 5, 2011, Ollanta Humala was elected President in a run-off against Keiko Fujimori, the daughter of Alberto Fujimori and former First Lady of Peru, in the 2011 elections, making him the first leftist president of Peru since Juan Velasco Alvarado. In December 2011, a state of emergency was declared following popular opposition to some major mining project and environmental concerns. Sightseeing Peru is a country rich in history and culture. It is very diverse and offers great places that are worth a visit. One might start the journey by the Peruvian Coast with its enigmatic Nazca Lines, the beautiful Marine Reserve of Paracas and the Oasis of Huacachina, where one can practice one of the ultimate sports of the country -- sandboarding. In the highlands one might explore one of the deepest canyons of the Americas " The Colca Canyon" and then travel by boat on the highest navigable lake of the world "Lake Titicaca". Hikers won´t want to miss the Inca Trail and discover the wonders of " Machu Picchu" -- a sacred citadel hidden in the eyebrow of the jungle. The ancient Inca capital of Cusco deserves a week-long stay with its fabulous colonial architecture, traditional festivals and wonderful nightlife. The "Sacred Valley" of the Incas with its picturesque Andean Market at the village of Pisaq is well worth the time. Those who would rather walk on he wild side might fly to Jungle and visit the National Reserve of Tambopata, a green world with gigantic trees, beautiful lagoons, winding rivers and wonderful wildlife. Eating out Peruvian cuisine is among the most varied in the world. Not only does the country grow a variety of fruits and vegetables, but it does so throughout the year. Peruvian geography offers at least 8 different climates . In Lima, due to its history as an important Spanish colonial port, the dishes are a mixture of amerindian, spaniard, african, asian and even italian influences that contribute to the ever changing platos criollos (creole dishes). Rice is the staple foodstuff, and expect many dishes to include rice, in the Siera it's corn and potatoes, and in the Jungle yuca. Meat is traditionally included in most Peruvian dishes. Chicken (pollo), pork, sheep and beef are common. Alpacas are actually kept for wool, not for meat. Mostly, you will find that alpaca meat is rather tough. An Andean delicacy is guinea pig (cuy). Peruvian cuisine includes dishes which use various organs, including anticuchos, a kebab made from very marinated and spicy beef heart, and cau-cau (sounds like cow-cow), made from cow stomach served in a yellow sauce with potatoes. Anticuchos are a standard street stall food, but be careful with it. Fish can be found along the coast (of course), but also in the jungle area since the rivers supply fresh fish (but beware of contamination in the area known as high jungle or selva alta, where most of the cocaine is made and strong chemicals get dumped into rivers; mining is a minor source of pollution in this area). In the Sierra, trout (truchas) are bred in several places. A very common fish dish is ceviche, raw fish prepared by marination in lime juice. Popular variations of the dish can include shellfish, and even sea urchin. The exact recipe and mode of preparation of ceviche will vary from region to region. Definitely worth a try, especially in summer, but cleanliness and sanitation make all the difference. Use care when buying from street vendors and remember that it is often served spicy. Throughout Peru there is a wide variety of potato dishes (papas, not patatas as in Spain), the traditional Andean vegetable. Papa a la Huancaina is a tasty dish of potato slices and diced boiled egg topped with a thin, creamy yellow sauce, and usually includes a lettuce leaf and an olive or two. (A similar green sauce, called Ocopa, can be served over potatoes or yuca.) Papa rellena is mashed potato reformed into a potato-like shape, but with meat, vegetables, and other spicy filling in the middle. Aji de gallina is shredded chicken in a thick, spicy, cheese-based sauce over sliced potatoes, often with an olive and slice of hard-boiled egg. Causa is mashed potato layered with mayonnaise-based tuna or chicken salad mixed with hot peppers. Many Peruvian dishes can be very spicy and heavy, so if you have a weak stomach, proceed with caution. Nowadays, the transport routes from the flat jungle areas are good enough to supply all the country with vegetables and fruits. Nevertheless, vegetables still have the status of a garnish for the meat. Vegetarian restaurants exist in all cities, but are relatively rare. In most areas, there is a rich offering of tropical fruits and fresh squeezed juices. The natives typically eat in small restaurants or Chinese eateries ("chifas"); a menu there costs 5-8 Soles and includes a soup, a choice of main dish, and a drink. If you count on international fast food chains, you will be disappointed. You find them almost nowhere except in the largest cities, and the prices are uniformly astronomical. Peruvians are quite proud of their desserts, especially in Lima. Try them with care, since they tend to be extremely sweet and loaded with sugars, eggs yolks and similar ingredients. Try mazamorra morada, or purple custard, made from the same purple corn used for chicha morada drink; together with arroz con leche (rice with sweetened condensed milk) is called a combinado (combination). Picarones are a sort of donut, made from fried yams dough and served with chancaca, a very sweet sugarcane syrup. And the sweetest dessert suspiro Limeño is perfect if you are in sore need of a high-calorie glucose shock. Nightlife The Pisco-Nasca area is famous for wine cultivating. Their more expensive vintages compare favorably against Chilean imports. Beer is nice, stronger than American brands but less full bodied than European ones. Most of Peruvian beers are made by Backus, currently owned by SAB Miller. When drinking at bars and/or restaurants, be aware that Peruvian "Happy Hour" is a little different than in most countries. Prices for drinks will usually be posted on the walls and be a little cheaper than normal. The real differences is that you will be served 2 drinks, instead of one, for the listed price -- giving a new meaning to the term "half price." This can be a great way to save money or to meet locals (if you are traveling alone). It can also lead you to get completely falling-down-drunk by accident, so be careful. Beer Some large towns have their own brand of beer which is hard to get elsewhere in the country. Cusqueña is one of the most popular beers while Cristal is known as the beer of Peru, both can be found nation wide. Wildlife Peru has some of the greatest biodiversity in the world because of the presence of the Andes, Amazon Rainforest, and the Pacific Ocean. Natural Protected Areas The Peruvian Constitution of 1993 recognized the natural resources and ecosystem variety of its country as a heritage. In 1900, the National System of Natural Areas that are protected by the Peruvian Government was created. This entity depends on the National Institute of Natural Resources (INRENA). They also created a map of protection and preservation of historical - cultural heritage and nature. This map has 49 Natural Areas (10% of the country surface) that are preserved by the Government: 8 National Parks, 8 National Reservations, 6 National Sanctuaries, 3 Historical Sanctuaries, 4 National Forests, 6 Protection Forests, 1 Communal Reservation, 2 Hunting enclosed lands and 11 Reserved Zones. National Parks are places where the wild flora and fauna are protected and preserved. Natural resources exploitation and human settlements are forbidden. Peru has over 53 natural protected areas throughout the country. Animals Peru has over 1,800 species of birds and 500 species of mammals and over 300 species of reptiles. Peru has hundreds of mammals including some rare cats like the puma, jaguar, spectacled bear, and river dolphins, that live in the canopy so jungle lodges usually construct towers to observe life above. The Pacific, holds a bounty of sea bass, flounder, anchovies, tuna, crustacean (crab or lobster), and shellfish. The Pacific has a lot of sharks, sperm whales, and whales. The Birds of Peru have an economic importance, because of the concentrations of guano deposits that are exported to different countries for use as fertilizer. Insects As of March 2009 scientists have discovered two new species of beetles, Eriopis canrash and Cycloneda andresii. Mammals Peru has over 500 species of mammals, of which about 70 are endemic and about 100 are threatened or endangered. These include spectacular species like the jaguar and spectacled bear and rare endemic species like the yellow-tailed woolly monkey. In January 2007, scientists discovered a new species of cloud-forest rodent of the spiny rat family in Manu. Recently in March 2009, scientists discovered a new species of mouse (Akodon sp.nov) Birds Peru's national bird is the Andean Cock-of-the-rock. Peru has over 1,800 species of birds - the second highest number of any country in the world. New species of birds are still being discovered and catalogued by scientists. 42 species have been officially added to science in the last 30 years. In January 2010, scientists found a new population of five Long-whiskered Owlets which are very rare in the wild. On February 22, 1990 they found a new distinctive species of the Tyrant Flycatcher called twistwing. Which remained undescribed and unidentified until November 2002. Then on September 13, 2003 they obtained the first-natural history of the bird. The Manu Biosphere Reserve is believed to have the highest concentration of bird species in the world, with 1,000—one out of every nine on the Earth. Reptiles Peru has around 300 species of reptiles of which around 100 are endemic. Peru's reptile fauna includes spectacular species like giant anacondas and caimans, as well as many other snakes, lizards and turtles. Amphibians There are about 380 species of frogs in Peru . It is easy to see a few species on night hikes in the lowland rain forest areas in Tambopata, Manu or Iquitos. Ten new frog species have been discovered over the past two years in the cloud forests of the Peruvian Andes. Frogs Some frog of the species are: Monkey frog - Phyllomedusa bicolor Tree frog - Hyla rhodopepla Three-striped poison dart frog - Epipedobates trivittatus Salamanders Nauta mushroomtongue salamander - Bolitoglossa altamazonica Rio Santa Rosa salamander - Bolitoglossa digitigrada Peru mushroomtongue salamander - Bolitoglossa peruviana In March 2009, scientists discovered a pygmy frog. The pygmy frog is so unusual because its eggs don't become tadpoles like most those of most frogs. Also, they only lay two eggs. Plants Peru, also has an equally diverse amount of plants. The coast of Peru is usually barren apart from some cactus's that grow there. The hilly areas known as lomas such as Lachay, get enough mist to sustain plants, shrubs, insects and hummingbirds. The river valleys also contain unique plant life. The Highlands above the tree-line is known as puna, where bushes, cactus and drought-resistant plants, such as ichu grass extend up to the zone of snow capped mountains. The most spetacular plant of Peru is the gigantic Puya raimondii seen near Huaraz. On the lower slopes of the Andes are steep-sided cloud-forests with among it can sustain moss, orchids, and bromeliads. The very wet Amazon Rainforest contains useful lumber, and resins plus strange canopy plants and palm trees. As of March 2009 Scientists have discovered a new kind of plant Senecio sanmarcosensis which is part of the high-Andean wetlands vegetation. It is only found at 14764ft above sea level. Locations Peru has some good locations to watch all of this wildlife: Bahuaja-Sonene National Park Ballestas Islands Colca Canyon Huascaran National Park - This park is located in the Central part of Peru. It includes El Huascaran - the highest peak in Peru. Special species include the Spectacled Bear and the Vicuna. Iquitos Manú National Park - Manu is located on the eastern slopes of the Andes and stretches to the lowland rain forest on the Brazilian border. Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve - It is located in the headwaters of the Amazon River in northeastern Peru, on an alluvial plain between the Marañon and Ucayali river systems. It is accessible via the Amazon River through the city of Iquitos in the department of Loreto, or through the city of Tarapoto via Yurimaguas. This is one of the best places for wildlife spotting, is a RAMSAR site and the largest government-protected area in the floodable Amazon rainforest in South America. Pampa Galeras National Reserve.Jaguar, Spectacled bear, Cougar, Collared peccary, Andean Cock-of-the-rock, Turkey Vulture, Blue-and-yellow Macaw, Nine-banded armadillo, Scarlet Macaw, Andean Condor, King Vulture, Osprey, Ocelot, Cattle Egret, South American tapir, White-tailed deer, Giant anteater, Giant otter, Cane toad, Sloth bear, Black Vulture, Capybara, American Kestrel, White-lipped peccary, Muscovy Duck, Great Egret, Burrowing Owl, Boa constrictor, American crocodile, Maned wolf, White-fronted capuchin, Harpy Eagle, Black-crowned Night Heron, Spectacled Owl, Sharp-shinned Hawk, Wood Stork, Vicuña, Pygmy marmoset, Common squirrel monkey, Eunectes murinus, Red brocket, Margay, Spider monkey, Snowy Egret, Red-eyed Vireo, Hoffmann's two-toed sloth, Guanaco, Mantled howler, Anhinga, Tufted capuchin, Kinkajou, Long-tailed weasel, Tayra, Mountain tapir, Oilbird, Common Snipe, Little Blue Heron, Oncilla, Red-and-green Macaw, Marsh deer, Military Macaw, Black Skimmer, Roseate Spoonbill, Sunbittern, Brown-throated sloth, Swallow-tailed Kite, South American coati, Striated Heron, Spotted Sandpiper, Southern tamandua, House Wren, Great Kiskadee, Pectoral Sandpiper, Culpeo, Chestnut-fronted Macaw, Sun Parakeet, Yellow-crowned Amazon, Giant armadillo, Blue-headed Parrot, Emperor tamarin, Blue-gray Tanager, Mexican free-tailed bat, Corallus caninus, Jabiru, Common vampire bat, Neotropical otter, Little Tinamou, Venezuelan red howler, Goeldi's marmoset, Mealy Amazon, Rufous-collared Sparrow, Epicrates cenchria, Common agouti, Greater Yellow-headed Vulture, Green Honeycreeper, Emerald Toucanet, Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture, Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle, Yellow-rumped Cacique, Shiny Cowbird, Andean mountain cat, Bananaquit, Upland Sandpiper, Wilson's Phalarope, Great Tinamou, Colocolo, Torrent Duck, Laughing Falcon, Black caiman, Squirrel Cuckoo, Short-eared dog, Channel-billed Toucan, Greater Yellowlegs, Barred Parakeet, Green-backed Trogon, Green Kingfisher, White-necked Thrush, Yellow-headed Caracara, Masked Crimson Tanager, Brown Tinamou, Red-faced spider monkey, Ruddy Pigeon, Variegated Tinamou, Purple Honeycreeper, Olivaceous Woodcreeper, Social Flycatcher, Undulated Tinamou, Tropical Parula, White-throated Toucan, Brown-mantled tamarin, Black Hawk-Eagle, Tropical Screech Owl, Silky anteater, Scale-backed Antbird, Paca, Short-tailed Hawk, Black-capped Donacobius, Lachesis muta, Ornate Hawk-Eagle, Pauraque, Blue Dacnis, Yellow-tailed woolly monkey, Variable Antshrike, Woolly monkey, Eastern Great Egret, Spix's Guan, Plain Antvireo, Neotropic Cormorant, Roadside Hawk, Common opossum, Bothrops, Bright-rumped Attila, Ringed Kingfisher, Green Jay, Barred Antshrike, Bicoloured Hawk, Green Violetear, Rufous-breasted Hermit, Eastern Wood Pewee, Red-capped Cardinal, Vermilion Flycatcher, Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Crimson-crested Woodpecker, Black Phoebe, Bothrops atrox, Cinereous Tinamou, Boat-billed Heron, Greyish Saltator, Pseudoplatystoma, Crested Oropendola, Common Bush Tanager, White Hawk, Red-bellied Macaw, Barred Forest Falcon, Horned Screamer, Snail Kite, Eastern Kingbird, Great Potoo, Least Grebe, Southern Pochard, Bat Falcon, Hog-nosed skunk, Blue-crowned Trogon, Red-throated Caracara, Solitary Sandpiper, Red-legged Honeycreeper, Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle, Spangled Cotinga, Eunectes, White-fronted spider monkey, Lineated Woodpecker, Smooth-billed Ani, Black-capped squirrel monkey, Black-faced Antthrush, Plain-brown Woodcreeper, Wedge-billed Woodcreeper, Ferruginous Pygmy Owl, White-necked Jacobin, Black-faced Antbird, Collared Inca, White-fronted Nunbird, White-bellied Parrot, Alagoas Curassow, Swainson's Thrush, Leporinus, Buff-tailed Sicklebill, Green Hermit, Ruddy Ground Dove, White-tipped Dove, Sechuran fox, Masked Yellowthroat, Festive Amazon, Curl-crested Aracari, Palm Tanager, Grey Tinamou, Tropical Kingbird, Painted Parakeet, Crested Eagle, Wattled Jacana, Fawn-breasted Brilliant, Buff-throated Woodcreeper, Gray brocket, White-throated Spadebill, Collared Trogon, Amazon Kingfisher, Paradise Tanager, Southern Beardless Tyrannulet, White-throated Tinamou, Red-masked Parakeet, Plushcap, Blue-throated Piping Guan, Tawny-throated Leaftosser, Forest Elaenia, Hepatic Tanager, Grey-fronted Dove, Green-and-gold Tanager, Boat-billed Flycatcher, Andean Tinamou, Tiny Hawk, Streaked Flycatcher, Chestnut-eared Aracari, Green-and-rufous Kingfisher, White-eyed Parakeet, Netta, White-rumped Sandpiper, Turquoise Tanager, Pale-vented Pigeon, White-winged Becard, Tui Parakeet, Grey-necked Wood Rail, Collared Plover, Ladder-tailed Nightjar, Sungrebe, Stilt Sandpiper, Semipalmated Sandpiper, Screaming Piha, White-flanked Antwren, Rufous-browed Peppershrike, Peruvian spider monkey, Blue-headed Macaw, Orange-bellied Euphonia, Violaceous Trogon, Giant Cowbird, Saffron Finch, Pacarana, Blue-black Grassquit, Striped Cuckoo, Black-fronted Nunbird, White-collared Swift, Ivory-billed Aracari, Dusky-capped Flycatcher, White-shouldered Tanager, Common Potoo, Geoffroy's tailless bat, Chestnut-capped Puffbird, Great Antshrike, Variable Hawk, Crested Owl, Boa (genus), Reddish Hermit, Bushy-tailed olingo, Musician Wren, Buff-throated Saltator, Golden-olive Woodpecker, Brown-eared woolly opossum, Taruca, Agami Heron, Violet-headed Hummingbird, Chestnut-collared Swift, Strong-billed Woodcreeper, Black-collared Hawk, Orange-winged Amazon, Swallow-winged Puffbird, Hooded Siskin, Green Ibis, Plumbeous Kite, Plain Xenops, Striolated Puffbird, Red-crowned Ant Tanager, Tailed tailless bat, Great Black Hawk, Scarlet-rumped Cacique, Long-billed Woodcreeper, Violaceous Jay, Dusky-headed Parakeet, Rufous Motmot, Cock-of-the-rock, Purple-throated Fruitcrow, Pale-winged Trumpeter, Fasciated Tiger Heron, Middle American Screech Owl, Long-billed Starthroat, Andean Guan, Southern Rough-winged Swallow, Amazon bamboo rat, Sharpbill, Scaled Pigeon, Striped Treehunter, Greater Ani, Black myotis, Black-throated Trogon, Bran-colored Flycatcher, Blue-naped Chlorophonia, Chestnut-bellied Seed Finch, White-crested Elaenia, Blue-backed Manakin, Yellow-bellied Elaenia, Amazonian Barred Woodcreeper, Slender-footed Tyrannulet, Golden-collared Toucanet, Rufescent Tiger Heron, Hook-billed Kite, Three-striped night monkey, Blue-and-white Swallow, Southern Nightingale-Wren, Swallow Tanager, Neotropical Palm Swift, Little Cuckoo, Buff-rumped Warbler, Gray-headed Kite, Hairy-legged myotis, White-winged Swallow, Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper, Blue-necked Tanager, Didelphis, Linnaeus's mouse opossum, Brown woolly monkey, Yellow-margined Flatbill, Brycon, Russet-backed Oropendola, Ringed Antpipit, Brown four-eyed opossum, Chestnut Woodpecker, Chestnut-crowned Becard, Opal-crowned Tanager, Eastern red bat, Amazonian Pygmy Owl, Thrush-like Schiffornis, Festive Coquette, Collared Puffbird, Pavonine Quetzal, Sparkling Violetear, Cocoi Heron, Giant Ameiva, White-eared opossum, Cobalt-winged Parakeet, Black-banded Woodcreeper, Masked Trogon, Blue-tailed Emerald, Slate-throated Whitestart, Fasciated Antshrike, Chestnut-capped Brush-finch, Double-toothed Kite, Red-billed Scythebill, Tropidurus, Yellow-bellied Dacnis, Blue-crowned Manakin, Pheasant Cuckoo, Ochre-bellied Flycatcher, Yellow-backed Tanager, Golden-headed Quetzal, Silvered Antbird, Epaulet Oriole, Streaked Xenops, Red-breasted Blackbird, Black Caracara, Black-and-chestnut Eagle, Little Woodpecker, Little Chachalaca, Velvety myotis, Great Jacamar, Spot-breasted Woodpecker, Fringe-lipped Bat, Dark-billed Cuckoo, Thick-billed Euphonia, Giant Conebill, Cliff Flycatcher, Tapeti, Orinoco Goose, Amazonian Oropendola, Monk saki, Streaked Tuftedcheek, Fork-tailed Woodnymph, Capped Heron, Slaty-capped Flycatcher, Black-tailed Trogon, Mouse-colored Tyrannulet, Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift, Crane Hawk, Black-capped Parakeet, Grey-breasted Sabrewing, Bay-headed Tanager, Booted Racket-tail, Red-rumped Cacique, Bare-necked Fruitcrow, Royal Flycatcher, Spot-winged Antbird, Grey-capped Flycatcher, Black-crowned Tityra, Long-billed Gnatwren, Gold tegu, Lettered Aracari, Olive Tanager, Moustached tamarin, Masked Tityra, Seba's short-tailed bat, Russet-crowned Warbler, White-shouldered Antshrike, Piratic Flycatcher, White-bellied Woodstar, Starred Wood Quail, Barred Becard, Speckle-faced Parrot, White-tipped Sicklebill, Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner, Fiery-capped Manakin, Broad-billed Motmot, Pied Water Tyrant, Straight-billed Woodcreeper, Cinnamon-throated Woodcreeper, Golden-plumed Parakeet, Ruddy Quail-Dove, Large-billed Tern, Spot-crowned Woodcreeper, Scarlet-crowned Barbet, Paradise Jacamar, White-plumed Antbird, Razor-billed Curassow, Yellow-billed Jacamar, Crowned Slaty Flycatcher, Sapphire-spangled Emerald, Pale-legged Hornero, Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner, Thrush-like Antpitta, Grey Hawk, Junin Grebe, White-browed Antbird, Short-crested Flycatcher, Golden-bellied Warbler, Spot-backed Antbird, Grey-breasted Mountain Toucan, Fulvous-crested Tanager, Long-tailed Sylph, Black-capped Becard, Orange-billed Sparrow, Smoky-brown Woodpecker, Green Manakin, Yellow-billed Tern, Orange-cheeked Parrot, Bolivian red howler, Prochilodus, Rufous-headed Woodpecker, Pale-breasted Spinetail, Brown-bellied Swallow, Black-and-white Seedeater, Lawrence's Thrush, Gray-breasted Martin, Black-headed night monkey, Collared Forest Falcon, Bronzy Inca, Masked Flowerpiercer, Black-throated Flowerpiercer, Cinnamon Flycatcher, Micrurus annellatus, Wattled Guan, Sirystes, Bicolored-spined porcupine, Pallas's long-tongued bat, Rufous-winged Antwren, Wing-barred Piprites, Incan caenolestid, Aceramarca gracile opossum, Scaled Antpitta, Spotted Tanager, Sepia-capped Flycatcher, Southern Yellow Grosbeak, Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet, Striped Manakin, Andean Parakeet, Plain-winged Antshrike, White-bellied slender opossum, Tyrian Metaltail, Grey-breasted Wood Wren, Red-billed Pied Tanager, Andean Pygmy Owl, Speckled Hummingbird, Grass-green Tanager, Andean Hillstar, Phyllotis, Plain-throated Antwren, Scaled Fruiteater, Lemon-throated Barbet, Slate-coloured Grosbeak, Chestnut-crowned Gnateater, Scaly-naped Amazon, Streak-necked Flycatcher, Chiguanco Thrush, Black-billed Thrush, Lemon-chested Greenlet, White-winged Tanager, Grey-tailed Piha, Chestnut-breasted Coronet, Yellow-browed Toucanet, Southern Amazon red squirrel, Chestnut sac-winged bat, Tawny-crowned Greenlet, White-capped Dipper, Osgood's short-tailed opossum, Slaty-backed Chat-Tyrant, Purple-throated Euphonia, Slaty-capped Shrike-Vireo, Oriole Blackbird, Ornate Flycatcher, Amethyst-throated Sunangel, Ferreira's spiny tree-rat, Rufous-tailed Antwren, Solitary Cacique, Rio Tapajós saki, White-winged Shrike-Tanager, White-backed Fire-eye, Chestnut-headed Crake, Green-fronted Lancebill, Southern three-striped opossum, Rufous-capped Antthrush, Andean Slaty Thrush, Gould's Jewelfront, Sepia short-tailed opossum, White-sided Flowerpiercer, Brown-chested Martin, Three-striped Warbler, Chestnut-crowned Foliage-gleaner, Band-tailed Manakin, Crested Becard, Orange-eared Tanager, Tricolored Brush Finch, Peruvian Tyrannulet, Picui Ground Dove, Bluish Flowerpiercer, Grey-headed Tanager, Slaty-backed Forest Falcon, Blue-black Grosbeak, White-banded Swallow, Silky short-tailed bat, Grey-hooded Bush Tanager, Black-eared Hemispingus, Flame-crested Tanager, Rufous-breasted Antthrush, Brown titi, Great Sapphirewing, Flame-faced Tanager, White-rumped Hawk, Dark fruit-eating bat, Rusty-belted Tapaculo, Buff-breasted Mountain Tanager, Black-spotted Bare-eye, Slaty Finch, Golden-tailed Sapphire, Barred Fruiteater, Tschudi's slender opossum, White-winged Black Tyrant, Yellow-shouldered Grosbeak, Sand-coloured Nighthawk, Yellow-browed Sparrow, Smoke-colored Pewee, Rufous-bellied Euphonia, White-chinned Sapphire, Blue-winged Mountain Tanager, Creamy-bellied Thrush, Rufous-breasted Chat-Tyrant, Rufous-sided Crake, Golden Tanager, Hairy-crested Antbird, Chestnut-backed Antshrike, Green-and-white Hummingbird, Orange-fronted Plushcrown, White-thighed Swallow, Scale-crested Pygmy Tyrant, Rufous-throated Sapphire, Azara's Spinetail, Spotted Barbtail, Lyre-tailed Nightjar, Opal-rumped Tanager, Scarlet-bellied Mountain Tanager, Simon's spiny rat, Long-tailed Hermit, Plum-throated Cotinga, Ornate Antwren, Koepcke's Hermit, Hooded Mountain Tanager, Plumbeous Antbird, Roraiman Flycatcher, Ochre-breasted Antpitta, Heller's broad-nosed bat, Guira Tanager, Black-throated Tody-Tyrant, Striated Antthrush, Plain-coloured Seedeater, Large-headed Flatbill, Spotted Nightingale-Thrush, Streak-throated Bush Tyrant, Red-crested Cotinga, Blue-capped Tanager, Blue-banded Toucanet, Handley's tailless bat, Olivaceous Flatbill, White-browed Purpletuft, Yellow-throated Tanager, Hooded Tanager, Pearled Treerunner, Lineated Foliage-gleaner, Short-tailed Swift, Moustached Flowerpiercer, Brown-backed Chat-Tyrant, Lacrimose Mountain Tanager, Beryl-spangled Tanager, White-collared Jay, Capped Conebill, Black-streaked Puffbird, Citrine Warbler, Stenocercus crassicaudatus, Brownish Twistwing, Purplish Jay, Puna Tinamou, Bar-winged Wood Wren, Euler's Flycatcher, Salvin's big-eyed bat, Blue-and-black Tanager, Allobates femoralis, White-browed Conebill, Orange-headed Tanager, Crested Quetzal, Black-necked Woodpecker, Plumbeous Sierra Finch, Masked Fruiteater, Rufous-chested Tanager, Brown-billed Scythebill, Olivaceous Piha, Purple-breasted Cotinga, Rufous-naped Brush-finch, Spectacled Whitestart, White-throated Tyrannulet, Band-tailed Fruiteater, Saffron-crowned Tanager, Tawny-faced Gnatwren, White-tipped Swift, Sierran Elaenia, Slaty-backed Nightingale-Thrush, Lined Seedeater, Yellow-throated Spadebill, Buff-browed Foliage-gleaner, Tawny Tit-Spinetail, Bronze-green Euphonia, Striped hairy-nosed bat, Mountain Wren, Black-backed Grosbeak, Purus Jacamar, Masked Tanager, Spotted Puffbird, Tremarctos, Thrush-like Wren, Little yellow-shouldered bat, Rufous-bellied Bush Tyrant, Grey Elaenia, Rufous-webbed Brilliant, Bar-bellied Woodpecker, Rufous-headed Pygmy Tyrant, Black-tailed Tityra, Ashy-headed Tyrannulet, Atelopus spumarius, Flavescent Flycatcher, Lesser dog-like bat, Barred Antthrush, Trinidad Piping Guan, Dusky-green Oropendola, Ocellated Piculet, Fulvous-breasted Flatbill, Slaty Tanager, Shining Sunbeam, Yellow-vented Woodpecker, Black-spotted Barbet, White-footed climbing mouse, Dot-winged Antwren, Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher, Lunulated Antbird, Bartlett's Tinamou, White-chinned Jacamar, Ash-throated Gnateater, Golden-collared Tanager, Andean Solitaire, Ash-browed Spinetail, Golden-green Woodpecker, Rufous Spinetail, Lesser Hornero, Scarlet-breasted Fruiteater, Gray woolly monkey, Guianan Warbling Antbird, Long-tailed Woodcreeper, Slate-coloured Hawk, Moustached Antwren, Pearl Kite, Cream-colored Woodpecker, Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher, Lined Forest Falcon, Wing-barred Seedeater, Little Hermit, Little Ground Tyrant, Drab Water Tyrant, White-eyed Tody-Tyrant, Spotted Tody-Flycatcher, Speckled Chachalaca, White-winged Guan, Rufescent Screech Owl, Flat-faced fruit-eating bat, Brown-capped Vireo, Guianan Puffbird, Pavonine Cuckoo, Andean Snipe, Dwarf brocket, Olivaceous Siskin, Black-necked Red Cotinga, Little red brocket, Cinereous Mourner, Slaty Antwren, Bothrops andianus, Yellow-throated Woodpecker, Rufous-tailed Flatbill, Striped Woodhaunter, Band-bellied Owl, Bolivian squirrel, Ringed Woodpecker, Grey-crowned Flatbill, Yellow-breasted Flatbill, Straight-billed Hermit, Grey Antwren, Asháninka arboreal chinchilla rat, Black-faced Dacnis, Amazonian brown brocket, Grey Antbird, Buff-fronted Owl, Bar-breasted Piculet, Scaly-breasted Woodpecker, Oligoryzomys destructor, Cinnamon Neopipo, Blackish Antbird, Nectomys squamipes, Olive-striped Flycatcher, White-throated Hawk, Flammulated Bamboo Tyrant, Dusky-capped Greenlet, Undulated Antshrike, Red-stained Woodpecker, Yellow-billed Cacique, Lake Junin frog, Ruddy Foliage-gleaner, Casqued Oropendola, Chestnut-tipped Toucanet, Chestnut-winged Hookbill, Southern Chestnut-tailed Antbird, Tawny-bellied Screech Owl, White-throated Quail-Dove, Grey-rumped Swift, Dwarf Tyrant-Manakin, Olive-backed Foliage-gleaner, Euryoryzomys, Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet, Oecomys bicolor, Crimson-mantled Woodpecker, White-chested Puffbird, Whiskered Myiobius, Pink-throated Becard, Blue Seedeater, Short-tailed Antthrush, Neacomys spinosus, White-cheeked Cotinga, Long-tailed Antbird, Short-tailed Nighthawk, Fiery-throated Fruiteater, Yellow-tufted Woodpecker, Plumbeous Pigeon, Black-bellied Cuckoo, Banded Antbird, Bearded Guan, Spot-winged Antshrike, Chestnut-crested Cotinga, Spix's Woodcreeper, Red-necked Woodpecker, Bluish-slate Antshrike, Thick-billed Saltator, Oecomys speciosus, Oecomys superans, Red-and-white Spinetail, Buffy broad-nosed bat, White-vented Euphonia, Black-throated Antbird, Black Antbird, Microryzomys minutus, Akodon aerosus, Glossy-black Thrush, Ocellated Woodcreeper, Marbled Wood Quail, Ocellated Poorwill, White-lored Euphonia, Big-eared brown bat, Batrachophrynus, Chestnut-bellied Mountain Tanager, White-throated Screech Owl, Band-tailed Oropendola, Incan little mastiff bat, Blue-backed Conebill, Rufous-tailed Tyrant, Brown-mandibled Aracari, Stripe-faced Wood Quail, Golden-crowned Spadebill, Oecomys phaeotis, Cinereous Becard, Pale-edged Flycatcher, Brock's yellow-eared bat, Long-winged Antwren, Grey-throated Leaftosser, White-crested Spadebill, Chestnut-bellied Seedeater, Black-tailed Leaftosser, Melissa's yellow-eared bat, Lineated Woodcreeper, Brown tent-making bat, Small big-eared brown bat, Rusty-fronted Tody-Flycatcher, Junin Crake, White-lored Tyrannulet, Velvet-fronted Grackle, Plain-crowned Spinetail, Eleutherodactylus cruralis, Speckled Spinetail, White-chinned Woodcreeper, Dusky-throated Antshrike, Chestnut-shouldered Antwren, Powerful Woodpecker, Scarlet-shouldered Parrotlet, Montane bamboo rat, Purple-throated Cotinga, White-throated Woodpecker, Eleutherodactylus rhabdolaemus, Rufous-breasted Wood Quail, Foothill Antwren, Coues's climbing mouse, Buff-throated Tody-Tyrant, Royal Sunangel, Pearly Antshrike, Eleutherodactylus variabilis, Rough-legged Tyrannulet, Black-capped Hemispingus, Rusty-winged Barbtail, Pale-legged Warbler, Puno grass mouse, Greyish Mourner, Short-billed Honeycreeper, Bolivian bamboo rat, Northern White-crowned Tapaculo, Subtropical Pygmy Owl, White-eyed Antwren, Dark-breasted Spinetail, Blue-fronted Lancebill, Unicolored Tapaculo, Large Elaenia, Rufous Antpitta, White-lined Antbird, Phyllonastes myrmecoides, Yellow-crested Tanager, Peruvian Recurvebill, Eleutherodactylus skydmainos, Cinnamon-rumped Foliage-gleaner, Taczanowski's oldfield mouse, Rufous-rumped Foliage-gleaner, Peruvian Wren, Vilcabamba Thistletail, Swainson's Flycatcher, Silky-tailed Nightjar, Slender oldfield mouse, Distinguished oldfield mouse, Double-banded Pygmy Tyrant, Golden oldfield mouse, Guianan Streaked Antwren, Eleutherodactylus toftae, Silent grass mouse, Inca oldfield mouse, Cloud forest grass mouse, Goeldi's Antbird, Bluish-fronted Jacamar, Bamboo Foliage-gleaner, Oleaginous Hemispingus, Paramo Seedeater, Bufo glaberrimus, Rufous-capped Nunlet, Crimson-bellied Woodpecker, Tawny-breasted Myiobius, White-eyed Attila, Parker's Spinetail, Chestnut long-tongued bat, Montane Foliage-gleaner, Little big-eared bat, Hemiphractus johnsoni, Bufo acutirostris, White-bearded Hermit, Brazilian brown bat, Silver fruit-eating bat, Mouse-colored Antshrike, Montane oldfield mouse, Blue-browed Tanager, Koepcke's Screech Owl, Rufous-tailed Foliage-gleaner, Pale-faced bat, Bronze-olive Pygmy Tyrant, Chunyi, Greater broad-nosed bat, Fulvous Wren, Hairy yellow-shouldered bat, Red-and-white Antpitta, Dusky-chested Flycatcher, Handley's nectar bat, Jet Manakin, Pale-footed Swallow, Needle-billed Hermit, Aratathomas's yellow-shouldered bat, Dotted Tanager, Black-billed Treehunter, Swallow-tailed Nightjar, Ihering's Antwren, Yellow-billed Nunbird, Blackish Pewee, Slender-billed Xenops, Gervais's fruit-eating bat, Drab Hemispingus, Tilda's yellow-shouldered bat, Cerulean-capped Manakin, Rufous-bellied Nighthawk, Johannes's Tody-Tyrant, Smoky Bush Tyrant, Thomas's broad-nosed bat, Hauxwell's Thrush, Semicollared Puffbird, Yungas Manakin, Argentine brown bat, White-throated Antbird, Chestnut-winged Foliage-gleaner, Lafresnaye's Piculet, Broad-toothed tailless bat, Creamy-bellied Antwren, Tawny-rumped Tyrannulet, Shadowy broad-nosed bat, Pale-rumped Swift, Olive-backed Woodcreeper, Grey-cheeked Nunlet, Olive-spotted Hummingbird, White-shouldered Antbird, Plain Softtail, Manu Antbird, Sclater's Antwren, Piura Chat-Tyrant, White-bellied Dacnis, White-bellied Pygmy Tyrant, White-throated Jacamar, Red-billed Tyrannulet, Bamboo Antshrike, Violet-throated Starfrontlet, Bidentate yellow-shouldered bat, White-eared Solitaire, Thomas's nectar bat, El Dorado grass mouse, Amazonian Antpitta, Plain-tailed Warbling Finch, Inca Flycatcher, Mottle-backed Elaenia, Cabanis's Spinetail, Greater yellow-shouldered bat, Yellow-scarfed Tanager, Olive Tufted Flycatcher, Trilling Tapaculo, Mylossoma, Soft grass mouse, Cinnamon-faced Tyrannulet, Band-tailed Pigeon Festivals Inti Raymi, Qoyllur Rit'i, Miss La Libertad, San Jose Festival, Trujillo Marinera Festival, Week anniversary of Trujillo Municipality, Gastronomic Fair in Trujillo, Trujillo Spring Festival, Carnival of Huanchaco, Lord of Miracles, Competition of Paso Horses in Trujillo, International Ballet Festival of Trujillo, Independence Day of Trujillo, Lord of Huaman Festival, Trujillo Book Festival, International Festival of Lyric Singing, Fiesta de la Candelaria, Estamos en la Calle, Fiestas Patrias, Carnival of Conache, Elcine, Guaripola, Great Military Parade, Derby Nacional, Los pastorcillos de Navidad Shopping Tourists looking to take back souvenirs from this Peruvian city will find this Machu Picchushopping guide very helpful. It highlights different shopping markets and things to buy in Machu Picchu. Tourists should be aware that there aren’t any shopping malls in the city, but there are numerous markets that offer just about anything one would need. Aguas Calientes One of the best places to go shopping in Machu Picchu is the market of Aguas Calientes, where you can find all kinds of items, from clothes to souvenirs. Most of the stalls here are crammed up against the train tracks. They sell local products like alpaca sweaters, local arts and crafts, and scarves as well. Tourists can also find plates, silver jewelry and numerous other things from the markets at Aguas Calientes. While wares are available in plenty here, tourists should learn to bargain, as merchants in these markets are known to hike the prices when it comes to tourists. Shopping in Aguas Calientes is perfect for tourists who are looking for ways to kill time while waiting for a train at the station. Pisac Market Most tourists are directed to the Pisac market, which is close to the ruins of the Inca fortress. This isn’t because the market has more to offer compared to other Peruvian markets. Instead, it is the colorful and lively environment that makes it ideal for tourists. Some of the best things to buy here are the Ponchos which are available in both kids and adult sizes. Tourists can also buy iron-on and embroidered T-shirts from these markets. Other popular items here are Peruvian and Llama dolls, handbags, musical instruments and rugs. Designs and prices vary as you walk through these markets, but they generally shouldn’t exceed $10, especially for clothes. A rule of thumb: browse the different items and prices before buying anything in particular. Tuesdays, Thursdays and Sundays are the best days to go shopping in this market. CuscoMarket Another popular place for tourists to shop in Machu Picchu is at the Cusco market. This is just a 10 minute journey from Pisac. The market is held in the old part of town daily, and it consists of stalls on the sidewalks. Handicrafts are the most common products sold at the Cusco market. Apart from the regular sweaters and bags that can be found in most Peruvian markets, the Cusco market also has elaborate wall hangings and table cloths. These are available in different sizes and rates. The rates for these handicrafts usually range between around $20 to $50, depending on their size. When shopping in Machu Picchu, especially in the open-air markets, it is best to use the official Peruvian currency which is also known as “Nuevo Sol.” Safety In Lima ring 105. In Lima and some of the larger cities there is a sort of local police called "Serenazgo": you may ask for help but they have no tourist oriented services. Work While there a very limited options for unskilled work and local wages are very low, teaching English or other language tutoring is an option. Avoid paying for volunteering. Simply contact a bunch of NGOs and let them know you are interested in working for them. Sometimes you can also get a paid job after doing some volunteer work. Just be clear that you are able to stay a fixed amount of time for unpaid work, and that you would need some money to continue your work. Transport Railways total: 1,988 km standard gauge: 1,608 km, gauge narrow gauge: 380 km, gauge There are two unconnected principal railways in Peru. The Ferrocarril Central Andino runs inland from Callao and Lima across the Andes watershed to La Oroya and Huancayo. It is the second highest railway in the world (following opening of the Qingzang railway in Tibet), with the Galera summit tunnel under Mount Meiggs at 4783m and Galera station at 4777m above sea level. In 1955 the railway opened a spur line from La Cima on the Morococha branch (4818m above sea level) to Volcán Mine, reaching an (at the time) world record altitude of 4830m. Both branch and spur have since closed to traffic. From Huancayo the route is extended by the Ferrocarril Huancayo - Huancavelica. In July 2006 FCCA began work to regauge the Huancavelica line from 3ft to standard gauge and it was finished in 2010. There was also a proposal for a 21 km tunnel under the Andes. The Ferrocarriles del Sur del Perú (FCS), now operated by PeruRail, runs from the coast at Matarani to Cuzco, and to Puno on Lake Titicaca. From Cuzco, PeruRail runs the 3ft gauge line to Aguas Calientes for Machu Picchu. Maps UN Map UNHCR Map for Peru and Ecuador Road maps by Ministry of Transportation and Communication Towns served Central railways See Ferrocarril Central Andino Map Lima - capital Callao - port La Oroya - junction Huancavelica - provincial capital Huancayo - provincial capital Cerro de Pasco - provincial capital Jauja Matucana Chosica Galera Junín Mejorada Ticlio - former junction in March 2009, gauge conversion from Huancayo to Huancavelica from to proceeds. By October 2010 it was finished and it is in service now. Southern railway See PeruRail Matarani - port Arequipa - second city Juliaca - junction Puno - railhead on Lake Titicaca Cuzco - break of gauge / Aguas Calientes - railhead for Machu Picchu Metro Lima has a metro service or Lima Metro, also called Tren electrico. The line has an extension of 21.9 km. with 16 stations, and goes from downtown to the southern districts. The northern branch of this line of 11.9 km. is under construction . Huancayo Metro is the second urban rail line in Peru, is located in the Andean city of Huancayo and is currently under construction (2012). Proposed Mining railway to Bayovar port by 2019. Also to Paita port. Cajamarca - mine Highways total: 85,900 km paved: 45,000 km unpaved: 40,900 km (1999 est.) The Pan American Highway runs the country from north to south next to the coast, from Tumbes (Ecuadoran border) to Tacna (Chilean border). From Arequipa a branch goes to Puno and then to Bolivia. Other important highways are the Longitudinal de la Sierra, that goes from north to south in the highlands; and the Carretera Central, that goes from Lima (in the coast) to Pucallpa (in the jungle). Long distance buses Inter-city travel in Peru is almost exclusively done in long distance buses. Buses in most of the cities depart from bus terminals called terminal terrestre. The main bus companies that serve Lima with the major cities include Cruz del Sur and Ormeño. Other companies are Civa, Tepsa, Cial, Flores and Oltursa. Waterways 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lake Titicaca. There are river boat service from Yurimaguas and Pucallpa to Iquitos, and from there to the Brazilian border in the Amazon river. Touristic boats can be reached at Puno in the Lake Titicaca. Pipelines crude oil 800 km natural gas and natural gas liquids 64 km Ports and harbors Pacific Ocean Callao Chimbote Ilo Matarani Paita Salaverry General San Martín Talara Lake Titicaca Puno. Amazon basin Iquitos Pucallpa Yurimaguas Merchant marine total: 7 ships totaling / ships by type: (1999 est.) bulk carrier 1 cargo ships 6 Airports and airlines AirportsAccording to a 1999 estimate there are 234 airports in Peru. Jorge Chavez International Airport, in Lima is Peru's main national and international gateway, with an estimate of 98 percent of all international flights into Peru landing at this airport. Other important airports are located in Cusco, Arequipa, Iquitos and Piura. Airports - with paved runways: total: 44 over 3,047 m: 7 2,438 to 3,047 m: 17 1,524 to 2,437 m: 12 914 to 1,523 m: 7 under 914 m: 1 Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 190 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 26 914 to 1,523 m: 67 under 914 m: 94 (1999 est.) AirlinesInternational airlines connecting Peru with North America, Europe and other Latin American countries include: Delta Air Lines, American Airlines, Continental Airlines, United Airlines, Air Canada, Iberia, Air France, KLM, LAN Airlines, TAM, Avianca, AeroMexico, and TACA. Airlines in Peru with domestic service in Peru include LAN Peru, Star Peru, Peruvian Airlines, LC Busre, and TACA Peru. Charter and Cargo airlines include Aero Transporte S.A., and Cielos Airlines. Former Peruvian airlines include Aero Continente, AeroPerú and Faucett. Getting There Visas Tourists from North America, Australia, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore and the European Union receive a visa upon arrival for up to 180 days. Indian passport holders should apply for their visas in advance with the nearest Peruvian Embassy, and should be able to present proof of solvency. When entering the country, you need to pass the immigration office (inmigracion). There you get a stamp in your passport that states the number of days you are allowed to stay (usually 180 days). You can no longer get an extension, so make sure that you ask for the amount of time you think you'll need. When those 180 days are up and you would like to stay for longer, you can either cross the border to a neighbouring country (Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia or Chile) and return the next day and obtain another 180 days or simply overstay and pay the fine when you exit. The overstay fine is only US$1 per day overage, so if you stay 30 days longer it's US$30. Many people do this, since it's much cheaper than leaving the country and returning. You will receive an extra official paper to be kept in the passport (make sure you don't lose it!). When leaving, you need to visit the emigration office (migracion), where you get the exit stamp. Imigracion and migracion are found on all border crossing-points. Traveling to and from neighboring countries by land is no problem. By plane The capital city of Lima has the Jorge Chávez International Airport with frequent flights all over the world. Main airlines are American Airlines, Delta, Lan, Lan Peru, Continental, Iberia, Copa, Taca and others. There are non-stop flights to Lima from Atlanta, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, Newark, New York City, and San Francisco in the United States. There is also a non-stop flight to Toronto, Canada with Air Canada. There are five different airlines that offer non-stop service to Europe. In the future there may be non-stop flights from Oceania or Asia but for now travelers usually connect through Los Angeles (non-U.S.-citizen have to pass immigration even for transfer, consuming 1-2 hours - so ensure your stop-over is long enough!) or through Santiago de Chile. For example, Iberia flies directly from Madrid to Lima, the trip lasting around 13 hours. However LAN and KLM flights are much better in quality. LAN and Iberia often fly in code share mode (1 plane, 2 flight codes) meaning if you've a LAN flight, you may have to check in at Iberia service desk or the opposite way, sometimes they send you from one to the next and back, so just queue at the shorter service desk... There is an internal flight tax, around US$6, same conditions as the international one. When booking domestic flights, there are several Peruvian travel agencies that can get you your plane tickets for the "Peruvian price" for a fee of about US$20, you'll notice that the prices can vary by several hundred dollars for the SAME flights when looking at LANs Peruvian site (http://www.lan.com/index-es-pe.html) and the USA site (http://www.lan.com/index-en-us.html). You'll find that if you try to book the cheaper flights from the Peruvian site, they won't accept payment from American bank accounts (this is why you do it through a Peruvian travel agency). The city of Iquitos has flights to Leticia, Colombia with AviaSelva and to Panama City, Panama with Copa Airines. They have a US$10 departure tax. From Ecuador Although Ecuador neighbors Peru, it is hard to find cheap flights connecting anything but the capitals. In particular, flying from Ecuador to Iquitos is not possible directly, nor can you travel directly from other large towns across the border. By boat The city of Iquitos in the Amazonas region has connections by boat to Leticia in Colombia and Tabatinga in Brazil (about 10 hours). Culture The culture of Peru was shaped by the relationship between Hispanic and Amerindian cultures. The ethnic diversity and rugged geography of Peru allowed diverse traditions and customs to co-exist. The coastal European influenced Peru has passed through various intellectual stages - from colonial Hispanic culture to European Romanticism after independence. The early 20th century brought "indigenismo", expressed in a new awareness of Indian culture. Since World War II, Peruvian writers, artists, and intellectuals such as César Vallejo and José María Arguedas have participated in worldwide intellectual and artistic movements. Literature Peruvian literature has its roots in the oral traditions of pre-Columbian Los Comentarios Reales de los Incas, published in 1609. After independence, the monarchy wrote a book that spoke to all of the people. Costumbrism and Romanticism became the most common literary genres, as exemplified in the works of Ricardo Palma.Martin, Gerald. "Literature, music and the visual arts, c. 1820–1870". In: Leslie Bethell A cultural history of Latin America. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 1998, pp. 3–45, 39. In the early 20th century, the Indigenismo movement produced such writers as Ciro Alegría, José María Arguedas,Gerald Martin, "Narrative since c. 2009", pp. 151152, 178179. and César Vallejo.Jaime Concha, "Poetry, c. 19201950", pp. 250253. José Carlos Mariátegui's essays in the 1920s were a turning-point in the political and economic analysis of Peruvian history.For example, Mariátegui, José Carlos, Siete ensayos de interpretación de la realidad peruana, Ediciones Era, S.A. de C.V., 1979; originally published 1928. During the second half of the century, Peruvian literature became more widely known because of authors such as Mario Vargas Llosa, a leading member of the Latin American Boom.Gerald Martin, "Narrative since c. 1920", pp. 186188. Architecture Peruvian architecture is a conjunction of European styles exposed to the influence of indigenous imagery. Two of the most well-known examples of the Early Colonial period are the Cathedral of Cusco and the Church of Santa Clara of Cuzco. After this period, the mestization reached its richer expression in the Baroque. Some examples of this Baroque period are the Convento de San Francisco, the Iglesia de la Compañía, and the facade of the University of Cuzco and, overall, the churches of San Agustín and Santa Rosa of Arequipa. The Independence War left a creative emptiness that was filled by the Neoclassicism of the French. The 20th century was characterized by the eclectic architecture, which has been in stark opposition to constructive functionalism. Its considerable example is San Martin Plaza in Lima. Music Peruvian music is an amalgamation of sounds and styles drawing on the Peru's Andean music roots and influenced by Spanish music. Celebrations Popular celebrations are the product of every town's traditions and legends. These celebrations include music, dances, meals and typical drinks. In addition to the religious celebrations like Christmas and Corpus Christi, there are others that express the syncretism of the indigenous beliefs with the Christians. An example is the Marinera which is one of the main dances found in Peru. Many families find it fascinating to watch a performance. They also have a guinea pig festival each year. Sports Football is the most popular sport in Peru. Football in Peru is governed by the Peruvian Football Federation which the PFF organizes the men's, women's, and futsal national teams. Futbol legends from Peru include Alejandro Villanueva, Teodoro Fernández, Valeriano López, Alberto Terry, Hugo Sotil, César Cueto, Roberto Challe, Héctor Chumpitaz and Teófilo Cubillas, Peru's most successful striker in the World Cup finals with 10 goals. Current renowned players include midfielder Nolberto Solano (Hull City), Juan Manuel Vargas (Fiorentina) and strikers Claudio Pizarro (Werder Bremen), José Paolo Guerrero (SV Hamburg) and Jefferson Farfán (Schalke 04). Alianza Lima, Sporting Cristal, and Universitario de Deportes are the biggest teams in Peru. In 2003, Cienciano won the Copa Sudamericana beating Argentinian club River Plate, and then proceeded to beat Latin American powerhouse Boca Juniors (Also from Argentina) in the Recopa Sudamericana played in Miami. Sporting Cristal was finalist in the Copa Libertadores de América 1997, South America's most important soccer tournament. Also Universitario de Deportes but in 1972. Achievements from the Peruvian national football team include competing at the FIFA World Cup, in 1930, 1970 (Quarterfinalists), 1978, and 1982. The national team won two Copa América's in 1939 and 1975. Achievements from the Peruvian women's national football team include finishing third place at the 1998 Sudamericano Femenino, and finishing fourth place at the 2003 Sudamericano Femenino. Women's volleyball is a popular sport in Peru (Silver medal in the 1988 Summer Olympics, Runners-up in the Volleyball World Championship, and 12 times South American Champion). Rugby union in Peru is a minor but growing sport. Cuisine Peru has a varied cuisine with ingredients like maize, tomato, potatoes, uchu or Ají oca, ulluco, avocado, fruits like chirimoya, lúcuma and pineapple, and animals like taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis), llama and guinea pig (called cuy). The combination of Inca and Spanish culinary traditions, resulted in new meals and ways of preparing them. The arrival of African and Chinese immigrants in the 19th century also resulted in the development of Creole cuisine in the city of Lima, where the vast majority of these immigrants settled. Some typical Peruvian dishes are ceviche (fish and shellfish marinated in citrus juice), chupe de camarones (a soup made of shrimp known as cryphiops caementarius), anticuchos (cow's heart roasted en brochette), olluco con charqui (a casserole dish made of ulluco and charqui), pachamanca (meat, tubers and beans cooked in a stone oven), lomo saltado (meat fried lightly with tomato and onion, served with french fries and rice) that has a Chinese influence, and the picante de cuy (a casserole dish made of fried guinea pig with some spices). Peruvian food can be accompanied by typical drinks like the chicha de jora (a chicha made of tender corn dried by the sun). There are also chichas made of purple corn or peanuts. Food Ceviche, Peruvian cuisine, Papa rellena, Pollo a la Brasa, Cat meat, Pachamanca, Papa a la Huancaína, Chicha, Chuño, Alfajor, Mazamorra, Lomo saltado, Anticuchos, Tiradito, Chifle, Natillas, Fried rice, Arroz a la cubana, Charqui, Juane, Locro, King Kong milk candy, Suspiro de limeña, Manjar blanco, Huatia, Chicharrón, Sopaipilla, Amazonian cuisine, Humita, Mote, Arroz chaufa, Pastel de choclo, Pedro Miguel Schiaffano, Novoandina, Arequipan cuisine, Milanesa, Tacacho, Churro, Batan, Carne arrollada, Picantería, Picarones, Isaac Kola, Arroz tapado, Carapulcra, Chipasmute, Escabeche, Purtumute, Oro, Pulp, Teja, Marraqueta, Champús, Empanada, Cazuela, Shambar, Sopa teologa, Tocosh, Shikashika, Algarrobina, Tamalito, Plátanos rellenos, Chancaca Architecture Peruvian architecture is the architecture carried out during any time in what is now modern-day Peru, and by Peruvian architects worldwide. Its diversity and long history spans from ancient Peru, the Inca Empire, Colonial Peru to the present day. Peruvian colonial architecture is the conjunction of European styles exposed to the influence of indigenous imagery. Two of the most well-known examples of the Renaissance period are the Cathedral and the Santa Clara church in Cusco. After this period, cultural mixture reached richer expression in the Baroque. Some examples of this Baroque period are the convent of San Francisco de Lima, the church of the Compañía and the facade of the University of Cuzco and, overall, the churches of San Agustín and Santa Rosa of Arequipa, its more beautiful exponents. The wars of independence left a creative emptiness that Neoclassicism of French inspiration could just fill. The 20th century is characterized by the eclecticism, to which the constructive functionalism has been against. The most considerable example is Plaza San Martín in Lima. Antioch, Illinois is a fantastic representation of Peruvian architecture as most of its inhabitants are white AMericans Music The music of Peru is an amalgamation of sounds and styles drawing on Peru's Andean, Spanish, and African roots. Andean influences can perhaps be best heard in wind instruments and the shape of the melodies, while the African influences can be heard in the rhythm and percussion instruments, and European influences can be heard in the harmonies and stringed instruments. Pre-Columbian Andean music was played on drums and wind instruments, not unlike the European pipe and tabor tradition. Andean tritonic and pentatonic scales were elaborated during the colonial period into hexatonic, and in some cases, diatonic scales. Instruments Stringed Instruments Peruvian music is dominated by the national instrument, the charango. The charango is member of the lute family of instruments and was invented during the Viceroyalty of Peru by musicians imitating the Spanish vihuela. In the Canas and Titicaca regions, the charango is used in courtship rituals, symbolically invoking mermaids with the instrument to lure the woman to the male performers. Until the 1960s, the charango was denigrated as an instrument of the rural poor. After the revolution in 1959, which built upon the Indigenismo movement the charango was popularized among other performers. Variants include the walaycho, chillador, chinlili, and the larger and lower-tuned charangon. While the Spanish guitar is widely played, so too is the Spanish-in-origin bandurria. Unlike the guitar, it has been transformed by Peruvian players over the years, changing from a 12-string, 6-course instrument to one having 12 to 16 strings in a mere 4 courses. Violins and harps, also of European origin, are also played. Percussion Instruments The cajón is an important percussion instrument developed by African slaves. The cowbell may also be of African origin. While the rhythms played on them are often African-influenced, some percussive instruments are of non-African origin. For example, of European origin is the bombo bass drum, and of Andean origin are the wankara and tinya respectively. Wind Instruments In addition to the ocarina and wakrapuku, there are Peruvian wind instruments of two basic types, panpipes and flutes, both of Native Andean origin and built to play tritonic, pentatonic and hexatonic scales, though some contemporary musicians play instruments designed to play European diatonic scales. Of the former variety, there are the siku (or zampoña) and antara. Of the latter variety, there are the pinkillo, tarka, and quena flutes. a big Dances See Peruvian dances Carnaval en Amazonas-- A dance from the Amazonas region similar to the huayno. Carnavalito-- A dance from southern Peru and the Bolivian Altiplano similar to the huayno. Chumaichada-- A dance from the Amazonas region with strong Native Peruvian musical influences and strong European dance influences. Creole Waltz-- A Peruvian adaptation of the European waltz. Cueca-- A pan-Andean compound 3/4-6/8 dance rhythm. Cumbia-- A Colombian-in-origin 2/4 dance rhythm. Danza de tijeras-- A dance from southern Peru. Danzantes de Levanto-- A dance from the Amazonas region. Diablada-- A 2/4 dance rhythm from southern Peru, Bolivia, and northern Chile. Festejo-- A popular 12/8 Afro-Peruvian dance form. Harawi or Yaravi-- A highland dance danced to various meters: 2/4, 3/4, and 4/4. Huanca (dance)-- A dance from the Amazonas region. Huayño-- A popular 2/4 highlands dance. Kantu-- A highland circle dance. Landó-- An Afro-Peruvian compound 3/4-12/8 dance rhythm. Marinera-- An Afro-Peruvian 6/8 dance rhythm. Polka-- A 2/4 European-in-origin dance form. Samacueca-- A 6/8 Afro-Peruvian dance form. San Juanito-- A 4/4 dance from northern Peru and Ecuador. Sikuri Son de los Diablos Tondero-- A northwestern Peruvian 6/8 dance form. Waillia-- A dance from the Oporeza area. Zamacueca Notable Performers Raul Romero's recordings of saxophone and clarinet ensembles from the Mantaro Valley have proved extremely influential. One important space for Peruvian contemporary classical music is Circomper, the Peruvian Composition Circle.